Sushmita Shivkumar

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BACKGROUND Stigma, discrimination, lack of privacy, and long waiting times partly explain why six out of ten individuals living with HIV do not access facility-based testing. By circumventing these barriers, self-testing offers potential for more people to know their sero-status. Recent approval of an in-home HIV self test in the US has sparked self-testing(More)
BACKGROUND A recent increase in reports of acute hepatitis C virus infection (HCV) in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected men who have sex with men (MSM), with the sole risk factor being sexual exposure, has led to routine screening and targeted prevention requests for this population; current evidence for this necessity is unclear. OBJECTIVE A systematic(More)
BACKGROUND In South Africa, stigma, discrimination, social visibility and fear of loss of confidentiality impede health facility-based HIV testing. With 50% of adults having ever tested for HIV in their lifetime, private, alternative testing options are urgently needed. Non-invasive, oral self-tests offer a potential for a confidential, unsupervised HIV(More)
BACKGROUND 170 million persons worldwide are infected with hepatitis C, many of whom are undiagnosed. Although rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and point-of-care tests (POCTs) provide a time- and cost-saving alternative to conventional laboratory tests, their global uptake partly depends on their performance. PURPOSE To meta-analyze the diagnostic accuracy(More)
BACKGROUND Rapid and point-of-care (POC) tests for syphilis are an invaluable screening tool, yet inadequate evaluation of their diagnostic accuracy against best reference standards limits their widespread global uptake. To fill this gap, a systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of rapid and POC tests(More)
BACKGROUND The focus on prevention strategies aimed at curbing the HIV epidemic is growing, and therefore screening for HIV has again taken centre stage. Our aim was to establish whether a convenient, non-invasive, HIV test that uses oral fluid was accurate by comparison with the same test with blood-based specimens. METHODS We did a systematic review and(More)
OBJECTIVE The objective of the study was to construct an ultrasound-based estimated fetal weight-for-gestational-age reference for twin fetuses, stratified by chorionicity. STUDY DESIGN We performed a retrospective cohort study of live-born nonanomalous twins delivered longer than 34 weeks at the Royal Victoria Hospital (Montreal, Canada). Fetal weight(More)
With 88% of HIV-1-infected individuals living in areas of high prevalence of non-B subtypes and with expanded global access to antiretroviral treatment (ART), studying disease progression amongst non-B subtypes gains relevance. Optimized clinical management is a possibility with knowledge of non-B subtype profiles at baseline, which is currently not(More)
OBJECTIVES Three-hundred fifty million people worldwide are chronically infected with Hepatitis B, with four million acute infections annually. With infection concentrated in hard-to-reach populations and low resource settings, rapid point-of-care (POC) tests offer an efficient screening alternative to laboratory tests. We conducted a meta-analysis to(More)
Aplysia californica is a marine opisthobranch mollusc used as a model organism in neurobiology for cellular analyses of learning and behavior because it possesses a comparatively small number of neurons of large size. The mollusca comprise the second largest animal phylum, yet detailed genetic and genomic information is only recently beginning to accrue.(More)
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