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To ascertain the role of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4) in vivo, we have targeted the mouse Cdk4 locus by homologous recombination to generate two strains of mice, one that lacks Cdk4 expression and one that expresses a Cdk4 molecule with an activating mutation. Embryonic fibroblasts proliferate normally in the absence of Cdk4 but have a delayed S phase(More)
Imbalances in glucose and energy homeostasis are at the core of the worldwide epidemic of obesity and diabetes. Here, we illustrate an important role of the TGF-β/Smad3 signaling pathway in regulating glucose and energy homeostasis. Smad3-deficient mice are protected from diet-induced obesity and diabetes. Interestingly, the metabolic protection is(More)
Obesity and diabetes are associated with excess caloric intake and reduced energy expenditure resulting in a negative energy balance. The incidence of diabetes has reached epidemic proportions, and childhood diabetes and obesity are increasing alarmingly. Therefore, it is important to develop safe, easily deliverable, and economically viable treatment(More)
Hematopoiesis is the cumulative result of intricately regulated signal transduction cascades that are mediated by cytokines and their cognate receptors. Proper culmination of these diverse signaling pathways forms the basis for an orderly generation of different cell types and aberrations in these pathways is an underlying cause for diseases such as cancer.(More)
In the present study we have analysed the regulation of pocket protein expression and post-transcriptional modifications on cell proliferation and differentiation, both in vivo and in vitro. There are marked changes in pocket protein levels during these transitions, the most striking differences being observed between p130 and p107. The mechanisms(More)
Insulin-producing pancreatic islet b cells (b-cells) are destroyed, severely depleted or functionally impaired in diabetes. Therefore, replacing functional b-cell mass would advance clinical diabetes management. We have previously demonstrated the importance of Cdk4 in regulating b-cell mass. Cdk4-deficient mice display b-cell hypoplasia and develop(More)
Obesity is associated with physical inactivity, which exacerbates the health consequences of weight gain. However, the mechanisms that mediate this association are unknown. We hypothesized that deficits in dopamine signaling contribute to physical inactivity in obesity. To investigate this, we quantified multiple aspects of dopamine signaling in lean and(More)
Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4) and Cdk6, and later Cdk2, in association with their specific cyclin partners, regulate the G1 to S phase cell cycle transition of mammalian cells by phosphorylation of retinoblastoma (Rb) family proteins. Phosphorylation of Rb results in the release of S-phase specific transcription factors; cell cycle-promoting gene(More)