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Recent mumps outbreaks in older vaccinated populations were caused primarily by genotype G viruses, which are phylogenetically distinct from the genotype A vaccine strains used in the countries affected by the outbreaks. This finding suggests that genotype A vaccine strains could have reduced efficacy against heterologous mumps viruses. The remote history(More)
Immunizing infants against measles at the youngest age possible has the potential to reduce morbidity and mortality. The ability of infants at 6, 9, or 12 months to respond to measles and mumps vaccines was evaluated by measuring T cell proliferation, interferon-gamma production, and neutralizing antibody titers before and after vaccination. Infants in all(More)
Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) F glycoprotein (RSV-F) can independently interact with immobilized heparin and facilitate both attachment to and infection of cells via an interaction with cellular heparan sulfate. RSV-glycosaminoglycan (GAG) interactions were evaluated using heparin-agarose affinity chromatography. RSV-F from A2- and B1/cp-52(More)
BACKGROUND Clinical trials of measles vaccination administered as aerosol are planned with the aim of obtaining licensure. Measles antibody levels will be measured using the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) to assess antibody responses as a surrogate marker of efficacy. METHODS A working group examined laboratory protocols for measles PRNT in(More)
Measles infection in infants is associated with severe complications, and secondary infections are attributed to generalized immunosuppression. Measles binding to its monocyte receptor down-regulates IL-12 which is expected to diminish Th1-like cytokine responses, including IFN-gamma. Whether young infants can be immunized effectively against measles is an(More)
The objective of this study was to characterize the kinetics of the cellular and humoral immune responses elicited by measles vaccine given to previously immune adults. The cellular and humoral immune responses to measles were measured in seven healthy adults, before vaccination and at 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks and 3 months after vaccination, using(More)
BACKGROUND Shifts in peak measles incidence to children <12 months old and the associated high mortality support the study of an early 2-dose measles vaccine regimen. METHODS Fifty-five infants were vaccinated with measles vaccine at age 6 (n=32) or 9 (n=23) months, followed by measles-mumps-rubella (MMR)-II vaccine at age 12 months. A control group(More)
BACKGROUND Achieving the level of population immunity required for measles elimination may be difficult in regions of high human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) prevalence, because HIV-1-infected children may be less likely to respond to or maintain protective antibody levels after vaccination. METHODS We conducted a prospective study of the(More)
Pestiviruses are potential contaminants of biological products produced in bovine or porcine cells or manufactured via processes using animal-derived raw materials such as bovine serum. In order to investigate possible contamination of products including those manufactured and/or licensed in the US, 38 lots of viral vaccines and five lots of interferon(More)
Waning immunity or secondary vaccine failure (SVF) has been anticipated by some as a challenge to global measles elimination efforts. Although such cases are infrequent, measles virus (MeV) infection can occur in vaccinated individuals following intense and/or prolonged exposure to an infected individual and may present as a modified illness that is(More)