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Functionalized compounds, which are difficult to produce by classical chemical synthesis, are of special interest as biotechnologically available targets. They represent useful building blocks for subsequent organic syntheses, wherein they can undergo stereoselective or regioselective reactions. "White Biotechnology" (as defined by the European Chemical(More)
Nitrogen is quantitatively the most important nutrient that plants acquire from the soil. It is well established that plant roots take up nitrogen compounds of low molecular mass, including ammonium, nitrate, and amino acids. However, in the soil of natural ecosystems, nitrogen occurs predominantly as proteins. This complex organic form of nitrogen is(More)
Kale is a member of the Brassicaceae family and has a complex profile of flavonoid glycosides. Therefore, kale is a suitable matrix to discuss in a comprehensive study the different fragmentation patterns of flavonoid glycosides. The wide variety of glycosylation and acylation patterns determines the health-promoting effects of these glycosides. The aim of(More)
Modern agriculture is based on the notion that nitrate is the main source of nitrogen (N) for crops, but nitrate is also the most mobile form of N and easily lost from soil. Efficient acquisition of nitrate by crops is therefore a prerequisite for avoiding off-site N pollution. Sugarcane is considered the most suitable tropical crop for biofuel production,(More)
The passive biocompatibility of silicon-based electrode arrays was studied in feline cortical tissue. Three types of arrays were used: uncoated, coated with polyimide, and coated with polyimide over an adhesion promoter. Fifteen arrays were implanted for 24 h to determine early tissue reaction to the implantation procedure, and twelve arrays were implanted(More)
The advent of metagenomics has revealed that our planet harbors millions of previously undiscovered microbial species. However, functional insights into the activities of microbial communities cannot easily be obtained using metagenomics. Using transcriptional analyses to study microbial gene functions is currently problematic due to difficulties working(More)
Causes for rarity in plants are poorly understood. Graptophyllum reticulatum is an endangered endemic species, and it has three close relatives with different conservation status: the vulnerable G. ilicifolium, the rare G. excelsum, and the common G. spinigerum. Applied to the chlorophyll a fluorescence transient of leaves, the JIP test provides a(More)
Interactions between plants and microbes in soil, the final frontier of ecology, determine the availability of nutrients to plants and thereby primary production of terrestrial ecosystems. Nutrient cycling in soils is considered a battle between autotrophs and heterotrophs in which the latter usually outcompete the former, although recent studies have(More)
Sugarcane is a globally important food, biofuel and biomaterials crop. High nitrogen (N) fertilizer rates aimed at increasing yield often result in environmental damage because of excess and inefficient application. Inoculation with diazotrophic bacteria is an attractive option for reducing N fertilizer needs. However, the efficacy of bacterial inoculants(More)
Azacytidine and decitabine are approved for treatment of acute myeloid leukemias and myelodysplastic syndromes. While clinical responses are attributed to epigenetic effects and induction of apoptosis in malignant cells, these azanucleosides also affect antitumor immune responses. NK cells as components of innate immunity may confine development and(More)