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In six studies participants searched for a target stimulus among other stimuli. Lexical decision and Stroop measures of accessibility showed that accessibility of target-related words was enhanced prior to finding the target and reduced after finding it, relative to both a preceding stage, relative to a control, no-goal condition and relative to a condition(More)
The amygdala plays an important role in emotional learning. Synaptic plasticity underlying the acquisition of conditioned fear occurs in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala: long-term potentiation (LTP) of synapses in the pathway of the conditioned stimulus (CS) has shown to be a neural correlate of this kind of emotional learning. The present study is(More)
Giant neurones in the caudal pontine reticular nucleus (PnC) play a crucial role in mediating the mammalian startle response. They receive input from cochlear, trigeminal and vestibular nuclei and project directly to motoneurones. Furthermore, they integrate modulatory input from different brain regions either enhancing or inhibiting startle responses. One(More)
Despite the early expression of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) in the retina, not much is known about their regulation and involvement in plasticity processes during retinal development and synapse formation. Here we report that NMDAR function in the inner retina is developmentally regulated and controlled by ambient light condition. A prominent down-regulation(More)
Cholinergic neurons in the striatum are thought to play major regulatory functions in motor behaviour and reward. These neurons express two vesicular transporters that can load either acetylcholine or glutamate into synaptic vesicles. Consequently cholinergic neurons can release both neurotransmitters, making it difficult to discern their individual(More)
Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are known to play a role in synaptic plasticity and learning. We have previously shown that mGluR7 deletion in mice produces a selective working memory (WM) impairment, while other types of memory such as reference memory remain unaffected. Since WM has been associated with Theta activity (6-12 Hz) in EEGs, and(More)
Genetic variations in the large-conductance, voltage- and calcium activated potassium channels (BK channels) have been recently implicated in mental retardation, autism and schizophrenia which all come along with severe cognitive impairments. In the present study we investigate the effects of functional BK channel deletion on cognition using a genetic mouse(More)
BACKGROUND Short-term habituation of the startle response represents an elementary form of learning in mammals. The underlying mechanism is located within the primary startle pathway, presumably at sensory synapses on giant neurons in the caudal pontine reticular nucleus (PnC). Short trains of action potentials in sensory afferent fibers induce depression(More)
Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of startle occurs when intensity stimuli precede stronger startle-inducing stimuli by 10-1000 ms. PPI deficits are found in individuals with schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders, and they correlate with other cognitive impairments. Animal research and clinical studies have demonstrated that both PPI and cognitive function(More)
The neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) plays a crucial role in both the central and peripheral nervous system. Central cholinergic transmission is important for cognitive functions and cholinergic disruptions have been associated with different neural disorders. We here tested the role of cholinergic transmission in basic cognitive functions, i.e. in(More)