Susanne Kramer

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Antagonists of several growth factor signaling pathways play important roles in developmental patterning by limiting the range of the cognate inducer. Here, we describe an antagonist of FGF signaling that patterns apical branching of the Drosophila airways. In wild-type embryos, the Branchless FGF induces secondary branching by activating the Breathless FGF(More)
Polo-like kinases (PLKs) are conserved eukaryotic cell cycle regulators, which play multiple roles, particularly during mitosis. The function of Trypanosoma brucei PLK was investigated in procyclic and bloodstream-form parasites. In procyclic trypanosomes, RNA interference (RNAi) of PLK, or overexpression of TY1-epitope-tagged PLK (PLKty), but not(More)
In trypanosomes there is an almost total reliance on post-transcriptional mechanisms to alter gene expression; here, heat shock was used to investigate the response to an environmental signal. Heat shock rapidly and reversibly induced a decrease in polysome abundance, and the consequent changes in mRNA metabolism were studied. Both heat shock and polysome(More)
The expression of transgenes encoding proteins modified o contain residues that impart a particular property, ‘tagged roteins’, is central to the post-genomic analysis of any organsm. Trypanosoma brucei is a model kinetoplastid protozoan athogen and has the most advanced repertoire of tools for everse genetic analysis available for any protozoan. The vast(More)
CCCH type zinc finger proteins are RNA binding proteins with regulatory functions at all stages of mRNA metabolism. The best-characterized member, tritetraproline (TTP), binds to AU rich elements in 3' UTRs of unstable mRNAs, mediating their degradation. In kinetoplastids, CCCH type zinc finger proteins have been identified as being involved in the(More)
RNP granules are ribonucleoprotein assemblies that regulate the post-transcriptional fate of mRNAs in all eukaryotes. Their exact function remains poorly understood, one reason for this is that RNP granule purification has not yet been achieved. We have exploited a unique feature of trypanosomes to prepare a cellular fraction highly enriched in starvation(More)
In trypanosomatids, alterations in gene expression in response to intrinsic or extrinsic signals are achieved through post-transcriptional mechanisms. In the last 20 years, research has concentrated on defining the responsible cis-elements in the untranslated regions of several regulated mRNAs. More recently, the focus has shifted towards the identification(More)
In trypanosomes, the predominant mechanisms of regulation of gene expression are post-transcriptional. The DEAD-box RNA helicase DHH1 was identified in a screen for gene products that are necessary for the instability of the GPI-PLC mRNA in insect-stage trypanosomes. Expression of an ATPase-deficient dhh1 mutant caused a rapid growth arrest associated with(More)
HIV-associated dementia (HAD) correlates with infiltration of monocytes into the brain. The accessory HIV-1 negative factor (Nef) protein, which modulates several signaling pathways, is constitutively present in persistently infected astroctyes. We demonstrated that monocytes responded with chemotaxis when subjected to cell culture supernatants of(More)