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We investigate experimentally the validity of proposed theories extending the tunneling approximation towards the multiphoton regime in strong-field ionization of helium. We employ elliptically polarized laser pulses and demonstrate how the influence of the ion potential on the released electron encoded in the measured observable provides the desired… (More)
Most game playing programs are based on heuristic game tree search: the nodes at distance t from the root are evaluated by a heuristic evaluation function, and these values are backed up to the root by minimaxing. Following an old investigation by Beal and Smith , we discuss depth-t search with randomised evaluation functions: the heuristic leaf… (More)
Strong field ionization momentum distribution contains much information. The angular distribution indicates real tunneling delay time, the center shows ellipticity dependent Coulomb effects, and the longitudinal momentum spread challenges the assumption of zero initial momentum.
Here we present a successful combination of an attosecond beamline with a COLTRIMS apparatus, which we refer to as AttoCOLTRIMS. The setup provides either single attosecond pulses or attosecond pulse trains for extreme ultraviolet-infrared pump-probe experiments. We achieve full attosecond stability by using an active interferometer stabilization. The… (More)
We combine an attosecond beamline with a 3D momentum imaging spectrometer to achieve coincidence pump probe experiments with unprecedented attosecond time-resolution. Besides technical details, first coincidence and pump-probe experiments are presented.
We report on the first experiments characterizing the complete time-dependent 2D vector potential of a few-cycle laser pulse. The instantaneous amplitude and orientation of the electric field is determined with sub-cycle resolution, directly giving access to the polarization state of the pulse at any instant in time. This is achieved by performing an… (More)
We present measurements of single-photon ionization time delays between the outermost valence electrons of argon and neon using a coincidence detection technique that allows for the simultaneous measurement of both species under identical conditions. The analysis of the measured traces reveals energy-dependent time delays of a few tens of attoseconds with… (More)