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Lung macrophages are long living cells with broad differentiation potential, which reside in the lung interstitium and alveoli or are organ-recruited upon inflammatory stimuli. A role of resident and recruited macrophages in initiating and maintaining pulmonary inflammation in lung infection or injury has been convincingly demonstrated. More recent reports(More)
PURPOSE "Choosing Wisely" is a growing international campaign aiming on practice changes to improve patient health through avoidance of unnecessary diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Our objective was to give an overview on recommendations related to diagnostic and therapeutic issues in infectious diseases from the "Top Five" lists of different medical(More)
Influenza A virus pneumonia is characterized by severe lung injury and high mortality. Early infection elicits a strong recruitment of monocytes from the peripheral blood across the endo-/epithelial barrier into the alveolar air space. However, it is currently unclear which of the infected resident lung cell populations, alveolar epithelial cells or(More)
The lung mesenchyme consists of a widely heterogeneous population of cells that play crucial roles during development and homeostasis after birth. These cells belong to myogenic, adipogenic, chondrogenic, neuronal and other lineages. Yet, no clear hierarchy for these lineages has been established. We have previously generated a novel Fgf10(iCre) knock-in(More)
UNLABELLED In 2012, the first cases of infection with the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) were identified. Since then, more than 1,000 cases of MERS-CoV infection have been confirmed; infection is typically associated with considerable morbidity and, in approximately 30% of cases, mortality. Currently, there is no protective vaccine(More)
Influenza virus (IV) infection can cause severe pneumonia and death. Therapeutic actions are limited to vaccines and a few anti-viral drugs. These target viral functions thereby selecting resistant variants. During replication IV activates the Raf/MEK/ERK-cascade and the transcription factor NF-kappaB. Both result in virus supportive and anti-viral effects(More)
Mononuclear phagocytes have been attributed a crucial role in the host defense toward influenza virus (IV), but their contribution to influenza-induced lung failure is incompletely understood. We demonstrate for the first time that lung-recruited "exudate" macrophages significantly contribute to alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) apoptosis by the release of(More)
Influenza viruses (IV) cause pneumonia in humans with progression to lung failure and fatal outcome. Dysregulated release of cytokines including type I interferons (IFNs) has been attributed a crucial role in immune-mediated pulmonary injury during severe IV infection. Using ex vivo and in vivo IV infection models, we demonstrate that alveolar macrophage(More)
In this review we summarize recent major advances in our understanding on the molecular mechanisms, mediators, and biomarkers of acute lung injury (ALI) and alveolar-capillary barrier dysfunction, highlighting the role of immune cells, inflammatory and noninflammatory signaling events, mechanical noxae, and the affected cellular and molecular entities and(More)
RATIONALE Exudate macrophages are key players in host defense toward invading pathogens. Their antiinflammatory and epithelial-protective potential in gram-negative pneumonia, however, remains elusive. OBJECTIVES We investigated whether exudate macrophages contributed to preservation of alveolar epithelial barrier integrity and analyzed the molecular(More)