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PURPOSE OF REVIEW Although most guidelines recommend monotherapy in schizophrenia, the combined application of multiple psychotropic agents is very common, especially in treatment-refractory cases. We review the empirical basis supporting these attempts and their relevance for clinical practice. RECENT FINDINGS Polypharmacy intends to address different(More)
BACKGROUND Epidemiological investigations show that up to 30% of schizophrenic patients suffer from obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) associated with negative impact on the general prognosis. It has been proposed that antiserotonergic second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) might induce OCS, but investigations of large samples integrating psychopathology,(More)
Patients with schizophrenia show deficits in motivation, reward anticipation and salience attribution. Several functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) investigations revealed neurobiological correlates of these deficits, raising the hypothesis of a common basis in midbrain dopaminergic signaling. However, investigations of drug-naïve first-episode(More)
Patients with psychotic disorders often suffer from intercurrent major depressive episodes (MDE). Case reports suggested successful antidepressive treatment with duloxetine, a selective dual reuptake inhibitor of serotonin and norepinephrine. We initiated this open prospective clinical trial to evaluate efficacy, safety and tolerability of this approach.(More)
Patients with schizophrenia often experience comorbid obsessive-compulsive syndromes (OCSs). Within these patients, a significant subgroup developed secondary OCS during treatment with antiserotonergic, atypical antipsychotic agents such as clozapine. Although cognitive behavioral therapy and antiobsessive antidepressants brought up inconsistent results, in(More)
Treatment resistance is considered a challenging problem of antipsychotic pharmacotherapy. In such cases, combination approaches are commonly used, for instance the add-on of aripiprazole to clozapine. This review aims at giving an overview of the present knowledge on this strategy. We performed a keyword-based screening of databases (including November(More)
Anxiety is a core symptom of schizophrenia that elicits significant subjective burden of disease and contributes to treatment resistance in schizophrenia. Anxious syndromes might be attributed to incompletely remitted delusions, the negative syndrome, depressive episodes, panic attacks, social phobia, avoidance after hospitalization, and down-tapering of(More)
INTRODUCTION Treatment resistance in schizophrenia often leads to add-on of atypical antipsychotics to clozapine. METHODS In a randomized trial, we recently obtained evidence for comparable efficacy and differential side effects of clozapine in combination with ziprasidone (CZ, N=12) versus risperidone (CR, N=12). Here, we present the open-label,(More)
Patients with schizophrenia suffer from deficits in monitoring and controlling their own thoughts. Within these so-called metacognitive impairments, alterations in probabilistic reasoning might be one cognitive phenomenon disposing to delusions. However, so far little is known about alterations in associated brain functionality. A previously established(More)