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Increased levels of DNA fragments have frequently been found in the blood plasma of cancer patients. Published data suggest that only a fraction of the DNA in blood plasma is derived from cancer cells. However, it is not known how much of the circulating DNA is from cancer or from noncancer cells. By quantitative methylation-specific PCR of the promoter(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW Although most guidelines recommend monotherapy in schizophrenia, the combined application of multiple psychotropic agents is very common, especially in treatment-refractory cases. We review the empirical basis supporting these attempts and their relevance for clinical practice. RECENT FINDINGS Polypharmacy intends to address different(More)
BACKGROUND Epidemiological investigations show that up to 30% of schizophrenic patients suffer from obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) associated with negative impact on the general prognosis. It has been proposed that antiserotonergic second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) might induce OCS, but investigations of large samples integrating psychopathology,(More)
BACKGROUND Metamemory describes the monitoring and knowledge about one's memory capabilities. Patients with schizophrenia have been found to be less able in differentiating between correct and false answers (smaller confidence gap) when asked to provide retrospective confidence ratings in previous studies. Furthermore, higher proportions of(More)
Cleavage fragment length polymorphism analysis with silver staining visualization (CFLPA-SS) was used for the detection of mutations previously detected by single strand conformation (SSCA) or heteroduplex analyses (HA); in order to assess this new method for mutation screening. The analysed mutations include single nucleotide transitions, transversions, a(More)
Patients with schizophrenia show deficits in motivation, reward anticipation and salience attribution. Several functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) investigations revealed neurobiological correlates of these deficits, raising the hypothesis of a common basis in midbrain dopaminergic signaling. However, investigations of drug-naïve first-episode(More)
Anxiety is a core symptom of schizophrenia that elicits significant subjective burden of disease and contributes to treatment resistance in schizophrenia. Anxious syndromes might be attributed to incompletely remitted delusions, the negative syndrome, depressive episodes, panic attacks, social phobia, avoidance after hospitalization, and down-tapering of(More)
BACKGROUND Bupropion inhibits the reuptake of norepinephrine and dopamine, which are involved in the pathogenesis of affective, cognitive, and psychomotor impairment in schizophrenia. Because of reports on bupropion-associated psychoses, it is reluctantly used in schizophrenic patients. Risks and benefits, however, have never been comprehensively reviewed.(More)
Three analogues each of leucine and isoleucine carrying hydroxy groups in gamma- or delta- or gamma- and delta-position have been synthesized, and tested in the aminoacylation by leucyl-tRNA synthetases from E. coli and yeast. Hydrolytic proofreading, as proposed in the chemical proofreading model, of these analogues and of homocysteine should result in a(More)