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Ataxin-2 is a cytoplasmic protein, product of the SCA2 gene. Expansion of the normal polyglutamine tract in the protein leads to the neurodegenerative disorder Spino-Cerebellar Ataxia type 2 (SCA2). Although ataxin-2 has been related to polyribosomes, endocytosis and actin-cytoskeleton organization, its biological function remains unknown. In the present(More)
Ceramides increase during obesity and promote insulin resistance. Ceramides vary in acyl-chain lengths from C14:0 to C30:0 and are synthesized by six ceramide synthase enzymes (CerS1-6). It remains unresolved whether obesity-associated alterations of specific CerSs and their defined acyl-chain length ceramides contribute to the manifestation of metabolic(More)
c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) 1-dependent signaling plays a crucial role in the development of obesity-associated insulin resistance. Here we demonstrate that JNK activation not only occurs in peripheral tissues, but also in the hypothalamus and pituitary of obese mice. To resolve the importance of JNK1 signaling in the hypothalamic/pituitary circuitry, we(More)
The mechanisms of endosomal and lysosomal cholesterol traffic are still poorly understood. We showed previously that unesterified cholesterol accumulates in the late endosomes and lysosomes of fibroblasts deficient in both lysosome associated membrane protein-2 (LAMP-2) and LAMP-1, two abundant membrane proteins of late endosomes and lysosomes. In this(More)
Fabry's disease results from an inborn error of glycosphingolipid metabolism that is due to deficiency of the lysosomal hydrolase α-galactosidase A. This X-linked defect results in the accumulation of enzyme substrates with terminally α-glycosidically bound galactose, mainly the neutral glycosphingolipid Globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) in various tissues,(More)
Integration of metabolic and immune responses during animal development ensures energy balance, permitting both growth and defense. Disturbed homeostasis causes organ failure, growth retardation, and metabolic disorders. Here, we show that the Drosophila melanogaster activating transcription factor 3 (Atf3) safeguards metabolic and immune system(More)
The barrier function of the human epidermis is supposed to be governed by lipid composition and organization in the stratum corneum. Disorders of keratinization, namely ichthyoses, are typically associated with disturbed barrier activity. Using autozygosity mapping and exome sequencing, we have identified a homozygous missense mutation in CERS3 in patients(More)
The formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) as a host innate immune defence mechanism has been shown to be the result of a novel cell death process called NETosis. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of cholesterol in the formation of NETs. To this end, primary human neutrophils were treated with different concentrations of(More)
Ceramides are crucial for skin barrier function, but little is known about the regulation of epidermal appendages and whether stem cell populations that control their regeneration depend on specific ceramide species. Here we demonstrate that ceramide synthase 4 (CerS4) is highly expressed in the epidermis of adult mice where it is localized in the(More)
Mitochondria form a dynamic network within the cell as a result of balanced fusion and fission. Despite the established role of mitofusins (MFN1 and MFN2) in mitochondrial fusion, only MFN2 has been associated with metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases, which suggests that MFN2 is needed to maintain mitochondrial energy metabolism. The molecular basis(More)