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The effect of dietary guar gum (GG, 7.5%) on lipid metabolism and on bile acid secretion and reabsorption was investigated in rats adapted to cholesterol-free or 0.3% cholesterol diets. Compared with controls (fiber-free/cholesterol-free), rats fed cholesterol had significantly elevated plasma and liver cholesterol and triglyceride. In these rats, GG had a(More)
This study was conducted to study digestion in rats of a diet containing soybean fiber (chiefly hemicellulose). The animals were first fed a fiber-free high starch diet for 7 d before receiving a 30% soybean fiber diet. There was a progressive change in the cecal pool of volatile fatty acids (VFA), up to approximately 1000 mumol, due to the enlargement of(More)
The availability of fermentable carbohydrates could influence the digestive degradation and disposal of blood urea. The effects of a poorly fermented cellulosic oat fiber, a soluble fermentable fiber (gum arabic) or one of two oligosaccharides (fructooligosaccharide or xylooligosaccharide) on nitrogen excretion were compared with a wheat starch-based(More)
The effect of different polysaccharides fermented in the large intestine and liable to lower plasma cholesterol was investigated in rats. Male rats were assigned to one of five treatment groups: control diet or a diet containing pectin, guar gum, gum arabic or beta-cyclodextrin. The four compounds were effectively fermented, yielding cecal short-chain fatty(More)
Chronic diseases develop in susceptible individuals following exposure to environmental conditions including high fat diets. Inbred strains of mice differing in susceptibility to atherosclerosis, diabetes, obesity and certain cancers are models for understanding the genetic basis and molecular mechanisms whereby diet influences these polygenic and(More)
Several antioxidants inhibit atherosclerosis. This study investigated the hypothesis that combining vitamin E, a lipophilic antioxidant, with vitamin C, a hydrophilic antioxidant, and/or selenium, a cofactor of peroxidases that detoxify lipid peroxides, would inhibit atherosclerosis more effectively than vitamin E alone. We also considered whether regional(More)
Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity was measured in the media of cultured mouse peritoneal macrophages that were isolated after the intraperitoneal injection of inflammatory agents in order to yield a variety of states of activation. Fully activated macrophages obtained from Corynebacterium parvum-injected mice secreted very low levels of LPL when compared to(More)
The influence of nondigestible carbohydrate on intestinal fermentations and on the route of nitrogen excretion has been investigated in normal rats and in unilaterally nephrectomized rats. Rats were adapted to 10% casein diets, either fiber free or containing different levels of two fermentable carbohydrates, inulin or crude potato starch. Ingestion of(More)
We investigated the effects of insulin deficiency and insulin treatment on the secretion of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) by murine macrophages. Streptozocin-induced insulin deficiency caused hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia in mice. Peritoneal macrophages isolated from insulin-deficient mice secreted 70% less LPL activity than control mice. A 65% decrease(More)
Hydrocolloids have been proposed as cholesterol-lowering agents, but their viscosity limits their use in human nutrition. A low level (1 %) of hydrocolloids (guar gum, (GG); xanthan gum, (XG); and konjac mannan) was investigated in rats fed 0.2 g/100 g cholesterol diets. Food intake and body weight gain were not altered by the diets. Bile flow and(More)