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The current study was concerned with the basic question of how to overcome users' disorientation when navigating through hierarchical menus in small-screen technical devices, as for example mobile phones. In these devices, menu functions are typically organized in a tree structure. Two different navigation aids were implemented into a computer simulation of(More)
Differences in cellular phones' complexity and their impact on children's performance are under study in this experiment. Twenty children (age 9-14 years) solved tasks on two phones that were simulated according to existing models on a PC with a touch screen, holding constant display size, fonts, and colors. Actions were logged and analyzed regarding(More)
The interrelationship between mental models of a cellular phone menu and performance depending on users' age was under study. The mental representation was assessed through card-sorting technique in 32 novice users (16 aged 20-32, 16 50-64 years). First, they had to process four common tasks on two simulated mobiles enabling online logging of users'(More)
The present study investigates the impact of different key solutions of mobile phones on users' effectiveness and efficiency using the devices. In the first experiment, 36 children (9 – 14 years) and in the second experiment 45 young adults (19 – 33 years) completed four common phone tasks twice consecutively on three simulated phones that had identical(More)
Manuals of technical devices are often not very helpful to the user. This study investigates the influence of spatial instructions versus conventional linear step-by-step manuals on inexperienced users' performance handling cellular phones. Results show a significant interaction between user age and manual. Middle aged users profit more from the spatial(More)
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