Susanne A. Keller

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Memory CD8 T cells are a critical component of protective immunity, and inducing effective memory T-cell responses is a major goal of vaccines against chronic infections and tumours. Considerable effort has gone into designing vaccine regimens that will increase the magnitude of the memory response, but there has been minimal emphasis on developing(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) are the most important APC. It was recently reported that there is a dichotomy for Ag presentation by DC subsets; exogenous Ags reach the MHC class I pathway, but not the MHC class II pathway, in CD8(+) DCs, whereas CD8(-) DCs only process Ags for the MHC class II pathway. In this study, we used virus-like particles (VLPs) to show that(More)
Innate stimuli, such as TLR ligands, are known to greatly facilitate cross-priming. Currently it is unclear whether innate stimuli enhance cross-priming at the level of cross-presentation or at the level of T-cell priming. In this study, we addressed this question by measuring cross-presentation as well as cross-priming by virus-like particles (VLP)(More)
Viruses and virus-like particles (VLPs) are known to be potent inducers of B cell as well as Th cell and CTL responses. It is well established that professional APCs such as dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages efficiently process viral particles for both MHC class I- and MHC class II-associated presentation, which is essential for induction of CTL and Th(More)
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