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To address how heritable patterns of gene expression are acquired during the differentiation of Th1 and Th2 cells, we analyzed the nuclear position of lineage-restricted cytokine genes and their upstream regulators by 3-dimensional fluorescence in situ hybridization. During Th1 differentiation, GATA-3 and c-maf loci, which encode upstream regulators of Th2(More)
Coordinated recombination of homologous antigen receptor loci is thought to be important for allelic exclusion. Here we show that homologous immunoglobulin alleles pair in a stage-specific way that mirrors the recombination patterns of these loci. The frequency of homologous immunoglobulin pairing was much lower in the absence of the RAG-1-RAG-2 recombinase(More)
Nonbiased V gene usage for V(D)J joining is essential for providing an optimal immune system, but no cis-acting sequence with this function has been uncovered. We previously identified a recombination silencer and heterochromatin targeting element in the Vκ-Jκ intervening sequence of germline Igκ transgenes, which we termed Sis. We now have generated Sis(More)
Nonbiased V gene usage for V(D)J joining is essential for providing an optimal immune system, but no cis-acting sequence with this function has been uncovered. We previously identified a recombination silencer and heterochromatin targeting element in the Vk-Jk intervening sequence of germline Igk transgenes, which we termed Sis. We now have generated Sis(More)
Variable-(diversity)-joining (V(D)J) recombination at loci encoding the immunoglobulin heavy chain (Igh) and immunoglobulin light chain (Igk) takes place sequentially during successive stages in B cell development. Using three-dimensional DNA fluorescence in situ hybridization, here we identify a lineage-specific and stage-specific interchromosomal(More)
Perhaps no process has provided more insight into the fine manipulation of locus accessibility than antigen receptor rearrangement. V(D)J recombination is carried out by the lymphoid-specific recombination-activating (RAG 1 and 2) proteins and the non-homologous end joining machinery; yet, it occurs only at specific loci (or portions of loci) during(More)
Class switch recombination (CSR) has the potential to generate genomic instability in B cells as activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), which mediates this process, is known to target many sites outside Igh. Nonetheless we do not fully understand what factors influence AID targeting genome-wide. Given that errors in CSR can lead to dangerous,(More)
Chromosome pairing is involved in X chromosome inactivation, a classic instance of monoallelic gene expression. Antigen receptor genes are also monoallelically expressed ("allelically excluded") by B and T lymphocytes, and we asked whether pairing contributed to the regulation of V(D)J recombination at these loci. We found that homologous immunoglobulin(More)
The genes encoding the variable (V) region of the B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) are assembled from V, D (diversity), and J (joining) elements through a RAG-mediated recombination process that relies on the recognition of recombination signal sequences (RSSs) flanking the individual elements. Secondary V(D)J rearrangement modifies the original Ig(More)
Variable-(diversity)-joining (V(D)J) recombination at loci encoding the immunoglobulin heavy chain (Igh) and immunoglobulin light chain (Igk) takes place sequentially during successive stages in B cell development. Using three-dimensional DNA fluorescence in situ hybridization, here we identify a lineage-specific and stage-specific interchromosomal(More)
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