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BACKGROUND Although heart rate and respiratory rate in children are measured routinely in acute settings, current reference ranges are not based on evidence. We aimed to derive new centile charts for these vital signs and to compare these centiles with existing international ranges. METHODS We searched Medline, Embase, CINAHL, and reference lists for(More)
—The photoplethysmogram (PPG) is the pulsatile wave-form produced by the pulse oximeter, which is widely used for monitoring arterial oxygen saturation in patients. Various methods for extracting the breathing rate from the PPG waveform have been compared using a consistent data set, and a novel technique using autoregressive modelling is presented. This(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the utilisation of paper-based track and trigger (T&T) charts in a UK emergency department (ED). METHODS A single-centre prospective observational cohort study was conducted in the ED of a medium-sized teaching hospital. Charted vital-sign data were collected from adults attending the resuscitation room, majors or observation ward.(More)
BACKGROUND Placebos are widely used in clinical practice in spite of ethical restrictions. Whether such use is justified depends in part on the relative benefit of placebos compared to 'active' treatments. A direct test for differences between placebo and 'active' treatment effects has not been conducted. OBJECTIVES We aimed to test for differences(More)
BACKGROUND Large artery stiffening and wave reflections are independent predictors of adverse events. To date, their assessment has been limited to specialised techniques and settings. A new, more practical method allowing assessment of central blood pressure from waveforms recorded using a conventional automated oscillometric monitor has recently been(More)
This paper presents the preliminary results of an observational study into the use of novelty detection techniques for detecting physiological deterioration in vital-sign data acquired from Emergency Department (ED) patients. Such patients are typically in an acute condition with a significant chance of deteriorating during their stay in hospital. Existing(More)
BACKGROUND Community-based self-screening may provide opportunities to increase detection of hypertension, and identify raised blood pressure (BP) in populations who do not access healthcare. This systematic review aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of non-physician screening and self-screening of BP in community settings. METHODS We searched the(More)
The accumulation and relatively rapid removal of fluid in haemodialysis patients is often accompanied by intradialytic hypotension (IDH). Current patient monitoring during haemodialysis includes intermittent measurements of tympanic temperature, blood pressure and haematocrit. However, this information is mostly used retrospectively rather than as a means(More)
BACKGROUND Most guidelines recommend the use of capillary refill time (CRT) as part of the routine assessment of unwell children, but there is little consensus on the optimum method of measurement and cut-off time. METHODS We searched Medline (from 1948), Embase (from 1980) and CINAHL (from 1991) to June 2014 to identify studies with information on the(More)