Susanna Schmink

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In 2000, >400 cases of disease caused by Neisseria meningitidis serogroup W135 (MenW135), the largest MenW135 outbreak reported to date, occurred worldwide among Hajj pilgrims and their contacts. To elucidate the origin of the outbreak strains and to investigate their relatedness to major clonal groups, genotypic and phenotypic subtyping was performed on 26(More)
Neisseria meningitidis is a leading cause of bacterial meningitis and septicemia in children and young adults in the United States. Rapid and reliable identification of N. meningitidis serogroups is crucial for judicious and expedient response to cases of meningococcal disease, including decisions about vaccination campaigns. From 1997 to 2002, 1,298 N.(More)
OBJECTIVE To identify reservoirs of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) pharyngeal carriage and assess barriers to vaccination among 2 Amish communities in Pennsylvania. METHODS We investigated recent cases, performed community surveys for Hib vaccination coverage and pharyngeal carriage, and administered a questionnaire assessing vaccination knowledge(More)
Real-time PCR (rt-PCR) is a widely used molecular method for detection of Neisseria meningitidis (Nm). Several rt-PCR assays for Nm target the capsule transport gene, ctrA. However, over 16% of meningococcal carriage isolates lack ctrA, rendering this target gene ineffective at identification of this sub-population of meningococcal isolates. The Cu-Zn(More)
Since 1990, the frequency of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C (NMSC) outbreaks in the United States has increased. Based on multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MEE), the current molecular subtyping standard, most of the NMSC outbreaks have been caused by isolates of several closely related electrophoretic types (ETs) within the ET-37 complex. We chose 66(More)
We report on three cases of meningococcal disease caused by ciprofloxacin-resistant Neisseria meningitidis, one in North Dakota and two in Minnesota. The cases were caused by the same serogroup B strain. To assess local carriage of resistant N. meningitidis, we conducted a pharyngeal-carriage survey and isolated the resistant strain from one asymptomatic(More)
BACKGROUND The African meningitis belt undergoes recurrent epidemics caused by Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A. During 2002, Burkina Faso documented the first large serogroup W-135 (NmW-135) meningococcal disease epidemic. To understand the emergence of NmW-135, we investigated meningococcal carriage and immunity. METHODS Immediately after Burkina(More)
In 2000, a large international outbreak of meningococcal disease caused by Neisseria meningitidis serogroup W-135 was identified among pilgrims returning from the Hajj in Saudi Arabia. To assess ongoing risk, we evaluated N. meningitidis carriage among US travelers to the 2001 Hajj. Of 25 N. meningitidis isolates obtained, 15 (60%) were nongroupable and 8(More)
BACKGROUND A quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MCV4) was licensed in the United States in 2005; no serogroup B vaccine is available. Neisseria meningitidis changes its capsular phenotype through capsular switching, which has implications for vaccines that do not protect against all serogroups. METHODS Meningococcal isolates from 10 Active(More)
BACKGROUND An outbreak of serogroup C meningococcal disease that involved illicit drug users and their contacts occurred in Brooklyn, New York, during 2005 and 2006. METHODS The objectives of this study were to identify the population at risk for meningococcal disease, describe efforts to interrupt disease transmission, and assess the impact of a vaccine(More)