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Bioluminescent flashing is essential for firefly reproduction, yet the specific molecular mechanisms that control light production are not well understood. We report that light production by fireflies can be stimulated by nitric oxide (NO) gas in the presence of oxygen and that NO scavengers block bioluminescence induced by the neurotransmitter octopamine.(More)
Whereas chromosomal translocations are common pathogenetic events in cancer, mechanisms that promote them are poorly understood. To elucidate translocation mechanisms in mammalian cells, we developed high-throughput, genome-wide translocation sequencing (HTGTS). We employed HTGTS to identify tens of thousands of independent translocation junctions involving(More)
Long DNA palindromes are implicated in chromosomal rearrangement, but their roles in the underlying molecular events remain a matter of conjecture. One notion is that palindromes induce DNA breaks after assuming a cruciform structure, the four-way DNA junction providing a target for cleavage by Holliday junction (HJ)-specific enzymes. Though compelling, few(More)
To study molecular events involved in B lymphocyte development and V(D)J rearrangement, we have established an efficient system for the differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) cells into mature Ig-secreting B lymphocytes. Here, we show that B lineage cells generated in vitro from ES cells are functionally analogous to normal fetal liver-derived or bone(More)
Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is a malformation syndrome associated with growth retardation, mental retardation, and immunodeficiency resulting from a hemizygous deletion of the short arm of chromosome 4, called the WHS critical region (WHSC). The WHSC1 gene is located in this region, and its loss is believed to be responsible for a number of WHS(More)
Genetic instability is promoted by unusual sequence arrangements and DNA structures. Hairpin DNA structures can form from palindromes and from triplet repeats, and they are also intermediates in V(D)J recombination. We have measured the genetic stability of a large palindrome which has the potential to form a one-stranded hairpin or a two-stranded cruciform(More)
Recurrent chromosomal abnormalities, especially chromosomal translocations, are strongly associated with certain subtypes of leukemia, lymphoma and solid tumors. The appearance of particular translocations or associated genomic alterations can be important indicators of disease prognosis, and in some cases, certain translocations may indicate appropriate(More)
DNA palindromes are a source of instability in eukaryotic genomes but remain under-investigated because they are difficult to study. Nonetheless, progress in the last year or so has begun to form a coherent picture of how DNA palindromes cause damage in eukaryotes and how this damage is opposed by cellular mechanisms. In yeast, the features of double strand(More)
However, the previous method relied on in vivo selection of rAAV integrants and could be employed for the liver but not for other tissues. Here, we describe a novel method for high-throughput rAAV integration site analysis that does not rely on marker gene expression, selection, or cell division, and therefore it can identify rAAV integration sites in(More)
The Ig and T cell receptor (TCR) loci have an exceptionally dynamic evolutionary history, but the mechanisms responsible remain a subject of speculation. Ig and TCR genes are unique in vertebrates in that they are assembled from V, D, and J segments by site-specific recombination in developing lymphocytes. Here we examine the extent to which the V(D)J(More)