Susanna M. Grzeschik

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Blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction is a potential mechanism involved in progressive striatal damage induced by the mitochondrial excitotoxin, 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP). After activation by proteases and free radicals, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), particularly MMP-9 and -2, can digest the endothelial basal lamina leading to BBB opening. Using CD-1(More)
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a motor neuron disease caused by dysfunction of the survival motor neuron (SMN) gene. Human SMN gene is present in duplicated copies: SMN1 and SMN2. More than 95% of patients with SMA lack a functional SMN1 but retain at least one copy of SMN2. Unlike SMN1, SMN2 is primarily transcribed into truncated messenger RNA and(More)
There is increasing evidence showing the involvement of unsaturated free fatty acids in cell death pathways, particularly in the context of apoptotic signalling. Our previous in vitro study has demonstrated that oleic acid, a monounsaturated fatty acid, reduces phosphorylation of proapoptotic Bad through activation of protein phosphatase type 2Cbeta. In the(More)
Small molecules that increase full-length survivor motor neuron (SMN) gene transcript are promising therapeutic candidates for spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Hydroxyurea (HU) has recently been shown to increase full-length SMN transcript in cultured lymphocytes from patients with SMA. We investigate the mechanism by which HU enhances full-length SMN2 gene(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the efficacy and safety of ocrelizumab (OCR) with methotrexate (MTX) in MTX-naive rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. METHODS In a randomised, double-blind, controlled trial, patients received placebo+MTX (MTX; n=210), OCR 200 mg×2+MTX (OCR 200; n=200) or OCR 500 mg×2+MTX (OCR 500; n=203). OCR/placebo (two intravenous infusions) was(More)
Manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD, SOD2) is an inducible antioxidant localized to the mitochondria, which have been shown to be both the sites of superoxide anion (O(2)*-)) production and the target of free radical attacks. Knock-out mice with targeted disruption of Sod2 (SOD2-KO) are more susceptible to ischemic damage than their wild-type (WT)(More)
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