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Brefeldin A (BFA) is a fungal metabolite that causes a redistribution of the stacked cisternae of the Golgi complex into the endoplasmic reticulum by inhibiting anterograde transport. We report that BFA also causes membrane tubules derived from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to fuse with early endosomes. In the presence of BFA, a mannose-6-phosphate receptor(More)
Cyanobacteria are major components of Antarctic Dry Valley ecosystems. Their occurrence in lakes and ponds is well documented, however, less is known about their distribution in edaphic environments. There has been considerable debate about the contribution of aquatic organic matter derived largely from cyanobacteria to terrestrial ecosystems. In this(More)
We report here that a broad spectrum of phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) antagonists produce a concentration-dependent, differential block in the endocytic recycling pathway of transferrin (Tf) and Tf receptors (TfRs) but have no acute affect on Tf uptake from the cell surface. At low concentrations of antagonists (approximately 1 microm), Tf and TfR accumulated(More)
Benthic Phormidium mats can contain high concentrations of the neurotoxins anatoxin-a and homoanatoxin-a. However, little is known about the co-occurrence of anatoxin-producing and non-anatoxin-producing strains within mats. There is also no data on variation in anatoxin content among toxic genotypes isolated from the same mat. In this study, 30 Phormidium(More)
Brefeldin A (BFA) induces the formation of an extensively fused network of membranes derived from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and early endosomes (EE). We describe in detail here the unaffected passage of endocytosed material through the fused TGN/EE compartments to lysosomes in BFA-treated cells. We also confirmed that BFA caused the formation of tubular(More)
Recent in vivo studies with the fungal metabolite, brefeldin A (BFA), have shown that in the absence of vesicle formation, membranes of the Golgi complex and the trans-Golgi network (TGN) are nevertheless able to extend long tubules which fuse with selected target organelles. We report here that the ability to form tubules (> 7 microns long) could be(More)
Toxic cyanobacterial blooms are increasing in prevalence. Microcystins are the most commonly produced cyanotoxin. Despite extensive research the variables regulating microcystin production remain unclear. Using a RT-QPCR assay that allowed the precise measurement of mcyE transcriptional gene expression and an ELISA that enabled small changes in total(More)
In November 2008 a dog died soon after ingesting benthic "algal" mat material from the Waitaki River, New Zealand. Based on a morphological examination of environmental material, the causative organism was putatively identified as the filamentous cyanobacterium Phormidium sp. Two strains (VUW25 and CYN61) were isolated and cultured to enable further(More)
AIMS The purpose of this study was to determine the variability in anatoxin-a (ATX) and homoanatoxin-a (HTX) concentrations in benthic cyanobacterial mats within sampling sites and to assess the applicability of using a PCR-based approach to determine ATX- and HTX-production potential. METHODS AND RESULTS ATX and HTX variability was investigated by(More)
In lakes, benthic micro-algae and cyanobacteria (periphyton) can contribute significantly to total primary productivity and provide important food sources for benthic invertebrates. Despite recognition of their importance, few studies have explored the diversity of the algal and cyanobacterial composition of periphyton mats in temperate lakes. In this(More)