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The standard bottleneck model of the psychological refractory period (PRP) assumes that the selection of the second response is postponed until the first response has been selected. Accordingly, dual-task interference is attributed to a single central-processing bottleneck involving decision and response selection, but not the execution of the response(More)
Five psychological refractory period (PRP) experiments were conducted with an especially time-consuming first task (Experiments 1, 3, and 5: mental rotation; Experiments 2 and 4: memory scanning) and with equal emphasis on the first task and on the second (left-right tone judgment). The standard design with varying stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) was(More)
Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) plays important roles in the brain after excitotoxic injury. It is released by both neurons and microglia and mediates neuronal death and microglial activation. Mice lacking tPA are resistant to excitotoxicity and show very limited microglial activation. Activated microglia are neurotoxic in culture, but this phenomenon is(More)
The notion of a mental time-line (i.e., past corresponds to left and future corresponds to right) supports the conceptual metaphor view assuming that abstract concepts like “time” are grounded in cognitively more accessible concepts like “space.” In five experiments, we further investigated the relationship between temporal and spatial representations and(More)
There are numerous findings in the literature supporting an association between bodily states and other cognitive and social processes. For example, Glenberg and Kaschak (2003) found that verbs with a movement component (e.g., give) are faster recognized when participants perform a congruent movement (extending an arm) than an incongruent one (flexing an(More)
In a recent study a strong congruency-effect has been shown between processing numbers (high/low) and nouns with an implicit up or down directional cue (e.g. roof/root). On this basis, the present study investigates the impact of grammatical number on this effect. Subjects processed number cues (2,3,8,9) followed by singular nouns with either up, down or(More)
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