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Half a century ago scientists attempted the detection of poliovirus in water. Since then other enteric viruses responsible for gastroenteritis and hepatitis have replaced enteroviruses as the main target for detection. However, most viral outbreaks are restricted to norovirus and hepatitis A virus, making them the main targets in water. The inclusion of(More)
A 3-year study involving 2,347 gastroenteritis samples was conducted to determine the prevalence, time distribution, and medical significance of human astrovirus infection in Barcelona, Spain. The overall incidence of astrovirus was found to be 4.9%. Mixed infections with other enteric agents were detected in 17.2% of all astrovirus-positive samples. During(More)
Human sapoviruses (SaVs) were quantified and characterized in an 18-month survey conducted along the Llobregat river catchment area in Spain. Sample types included freshwater, untreated and treated wastewater, and drinking water. All genogroups were recovered, and a seasonal distribution was observed. This is the first report of SaV quantification and(More)
Computational and biological approaches were undertaken to characterize the role of the human astrovirus nonstructural protein nsP1a/4, located at the C-terminal fragment of nsP1a. Computer analysis reveals sequence similarities to other nonstructural viral proteins involved in RNA replication and/or transcription and allows the identification of a(More)
Protein trafficking between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus is central to cellular homeostasis. ER export signals are utilized by a subset of proteins to rapidly exit the ER by direct uptake into COPII vesicles for transport to the Golgi. Norwalk virus nonstructural protein p22 contains a YXΦESDG motif that mimics a di-acidic ER export(More)
The molecular epidemiology of human caliciviruses (HuCVs) causing sporadic cases and outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis around eastern Spain (Catalonia and the Valencian Community) was studied by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and by sequencing part of the RNA polymerase gene in open reading frame 1. HuCVs were detected in 44 of 310 stool specimens(More)
By the end of December 2000, the epidemiological system 'Alert' of the Public Health Institute in Tirane reported an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis. The outbreak involved children in Tirane and in the rural area. In total, 2722 children were seen in Tirane Hospital and 982 (56.4%) were treated for acute gastroenteritis. The age group with the highest(More)
Human astroviruses (HAtVs) are positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses that were discovered in 1975. Astroviruses infecting other species, particularly mammalian and avian, were identified and classified into the genera Mamastrovirus and Avastrovirus. Through next-generation sequencing, many new astroviruses infecting different species, including humans,(More)
Human noroviruses are positive-sense RNA viruses and are the leading cause of epidemic acute viral gastroenteritis in developed countries. The absence of an in vitro cell culture model for human norovirus infection has limited the development of effective antivirals and vaccines. Human histo-blood group antigens have been regarded as receptors for norovirus(More)
Human noroviruses are difficult to study due to the lack of an efficient in vitro cell culture system or small animal model. Murine norovirus replicates in murine macrophages (MPhi) and dendritic cells (DCs), raising the possibility that human NoVs might replicate in such human cell types. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated DCs and MPhi derived from(More)