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Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) diverts energy from ATP synthesis to thermogenesis in the mitochondria of brown adipose tissue by catalysing a regulated leak of protons across the inner membrane. The functions of its homologues, UCP2 and UCP3, in other tissues are debated. UCP2 and UCP3 are present at much lower abundance than UCP1, and the uncoupling with(More)
The relationship of oxidative stress with maximum life span (MLSP) in different vertebrate species is reviewed. In all animal groups the endogenous levels of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in tissues negatively correlate with MLSP and the most longevous animals studied in each group, pigeon or man, show the minimum levels of antioxidants. A(More)
Uncoupling protein-3 (UCP-3) is a recently identified member of the mitochondrial transporter superfamily that is expressed predominantly in skeletal muscle. However, its close relative UCP-1 is expressed exclusively in brown adipose tissue, a tissue whose main function is fat combustion and thermogenesis. Studies on the expression of UCP-3 in animals and(More)
The fine regulation of mitochondrial function has proved to be an essential metabolic adaptation to fluctuations in oxygen availability. During hypoxia, cells activate an anaerobic switch that favors glycolysis and attenuates the mitochondrial activity. This switch involves the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor-1 (HIF-1). We have identified a HIF-1(More)
Septic shock is a serious problem in critically ill and surgical patients throughout the world. It is a systemic inflammatory response caused by excessive secretion of proinflammatory mediators, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, mainly induced by endotoxin, a major component of the Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane. Experimental evidence suggests(More)
Although nitric oxide (NO) was identified more than 150 years ago and its effects were clinically tested in the form of nitroglycerine, it was not until the decades of 1970-1990 that it was described as a gaseous signal transducer. Since then, a canonical pathway linked to cyclic GMP (cGMP) as its quintessential effector has been established, but other(More)
The ability of native uncoupling protein-3 (UCP3) to uncouple mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation is controversial. We measured the expression level of UCP3 and the proton conductance of skeletal muscle mitochondria isolated from transgenic mice overexpressing human UCP3 (UCP3-tg) and from UCP3 knockout (UCP3-KO) mice. The concentration of UCP3 in(More)
Guinea pigs were fed during 5 weeks with three different levels of vitamin C in the diet: 33 (marginal deficiency), 660, or 13,200 mg of vitamin C per kg of diet. The group fed 660 mg of vitamin C/kg of diet showed strongly reduced levels of protein carbonyls (46% decrease), malondialdehyde (HPLC; 72% decrease), and in vitro production of TBARS (both(More)
Mitochondrial proton leak is the largest single contributor to the standard metabolic rate (SMR) of a rat, accounting for about 20% of SMR. Yet the mechanisms by which proton leak occurs are incompletely understood. The available evidence suggests that both phospholipids and proteins in the mitochondrial inner membrane are important determinants of proton(More)
Mitochondrial proton leak in rat muscle is responsible for approx. 15% of the standard metabolic rate, so its modulation could be important in regulating metabolic efficiency. We report in the present paper that physiological concentrations of AMP (K(0.5)=80 microM) increase the resting respiration rate and double the proton conductance of rat(More)