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Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) diverts energy from ATP synthesis to thermogenesis in the mitochondria of brown adipose tissue by catalysing a regulated leak of protons across the inner membrane. The functions of its homologues, UCP2 and UCP3, in other tissues are debated. UCP2 and UCP3 are present at much lower abundance than UCP1, and the uncoupling with(More)
Although nitric oxide (NO) was identified more than 150 years ago and its effects were clinically tested in the form of nitroglycerine, it was not until the decades of 1970-1990 that it was described as a gaseous signal transducer. Since then, a canonical pathway linked to cyclic GMP (cGMP) as its quintessential effector has been established, but other(More)
The ability of native uncoupling protein-3 (UCP3) to uncouple mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation is controversial. We measured the expression level of UCP3 and the proton conductance of skeletal muscle mitochondria isolated from transgenic mice overexpressing human UCP3 (UCP3-tg) and from UCP3 knockout (UCP3-KO) mice. The concentration of UCP3 in(More)
Guinea pigs were fed during 5 weeks with three different levels of vitamin C in the diet: 33 (marginal deficiency), 660, or 13,200 mg of vitamin C per kg of diet. The group fed 660 mg of vitamin C/kg of diet showed strongly reduced levels of protein carbonyls (46% decrease), malondialdehyde (HPLC; 72% decrease), and in vitro production of TBARS (both(More)
The fine regulation of mitochondrial function has proved to be an essential metabolic adaptation to fluctuations in oxygen availability. During hypoxia, cells activate an anaerobic switch that favors glycolysis and attenuates the mitochondrial activity. This switch involves the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor-1 (HIF-1). We have identified a HIF-1(More)
Birds have a much higher maximum longevity (MLSP) than mammals of similar metabolic rate. Recent data showed that pigeon mitochondria produce oxygen radicals at a rate much slower than rat mitochondria, in spite of showing similar levels of oxygen consumption (Free Rad. Res., 21 (1994) 317-328). Since oxidative damage from and to mitochondria seems(More)
1. The three main non-enzymatic endogenous soluble antioxidants and three estimators of oxidative stress were measured in the liver, lung and brain of seven animal species of different vertebrate classes. 2. The more concentrated antioxidant was GSH, followed by ascorbate and finally by uric acid. Liver showed higher levels of GSH and uric acid than the(More)
Guinea pigs were fed for five weeks with three diets containing different levels of vitamin E: LOW (but nondeficient, 15 mg of vitamin E/kg diet), MEDIUM (150 mg/kg diet), and HIGH (1,500 mg/kg diet). Dietary vitamin E supplementation did not change oxidative stress indicators in the hydrophilic compartment but increased liver alpha-tocopherol in a(More)
Uncoupling protein-3 (UCP-3) is a recently identified member of the mitochondrial transporter superfamily that is expressed predominantly in skeletal muscle. However, its close relative UCP-1 is expressed exclusively in brown adipose tissue, a tissue whose main function is fat combustion and thermogenesis. Studies on the expression of UCP-3 in animals and(More)
The relationship of oxidative stress with maximum life span (MLSP) in different vertebrate species is reviewed. In all animal groups the endogenous levels of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in tissues negatively correlate with MLSP and the most longevous animals studied in each group, pigeon or man, show the minimum levels of antioxidants. A(More)