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Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) diverts energy from ATP synthesis to thermogenesis in the mitochondria of brown adipose tissue by catalysing a regulated leak of protons across the inner membrane. The functions of its homologues, UCP2 and UCP3, in other tissues are debated. UCP2 and UCP3 are present at much lower abundance than UCP1, and the uncoupling with(More)
Birds have a much higher maximum longevity (MLSP) than mammals of similar metabolic rate. Recent data showed that pigeon mitochondria produce oxygen radicals at a rate much slower than rat mitochondria, in spite of showing similar levels of oxygen consumption (Free Rad. Res., 21 (1994) 317-328). Since oxidative damage from and to mitochondria seems(More)
Uncoupling protein-3 (UCP-3) is a recently identified member of the mitochondrial transporter superfamily that is expressed predominantly in skeletal muscle. However, its close relative UCP-1 is expressed exclusively in brown adipose tissue, a tissue whose main function is fat combustion and thermogenesis. Studies on the expression of UCP-3 in animals and(More)
The relationship of oxidative stress with maximum life span (MLSP) in different vertebrate species is reviewed. In all animal groups the endogenous levels of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in tissues negatively correlate with MLSP and the most longevous animals studied in each group, pigeon or man, show the minimum levels of antioxidants. A(More)
Redox biological reactions are now accepted to bear the Janus faceted feature of promoting both physiological signaling responses and pathophysiological cues. Endogenous antioxidant molecules participate in both scenarios. This review focuses on the role of crucial cellular nucleophiles, such as glutathione, and their capacity to interact with oxidants and(More)
Mitochondrial proton leak is the largest single contributor to the standard metabolic rate (SMR) of a rat, accounting for about 20% of SMR. Yet the mechanisms by which proton leak occurs are incompletely understood. The available evidence suggests that both phospholipids and proteins in the mitochondrial inner membrane are important determinants of proton(More)
Under hypoxic conditions, mitochondria can represent a threat to the cell because of their capacity to generate toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, cardiomyocytes are equipped with an oxygen-sensing pathway that involves prolyl hydroxylase oxygen sensors and hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), which induces a tightly regulated programme to keep(More)
In order to help clarify whether free radicals are implicated or not in the evolution of maximum life span (MLSP) of animals, a comprehensive study was performed in the liver of various vertebrate species. Strongly significant negative correlations against MLSP were found for hepatic catalase, Se-dependent and -independent glutathione peroxidases, and GSH,(More)
Dietary antioxidants may influence cancer risk and aging by modifying oxidative damage. The effect of graded dietary doses of the antioxidant vitamins C and E on oxidative DNA damage was studied in the liver of guinea-pigs under normal conditions. Like human beings, guinea-pigs cannot synthesize ascorbate and alpha-tocopherol. In one experiment, three(More)
Carbohydrate restriction and caloric restriction (60% restriction of calories in relation to controls in both cases) were imposed on OF1 mice during 8 weeks in their growing phase. The three groups of animals ingested the same amount of vitamins and minerals. Kidney ascorbate strongly decreased in both restriction groups. Nevertheless, global caloric(More)