Public information services and documents should be accessible to the widest possible readership. Information in newspapers often takes the form of numerical expressions which pose comprehension problems for people with limited education. A first possible approach to solve this important social problem is making numerical information accessible by rewriting… (More)
Are numbers expressed as digits easier to read and understand than written with letters? What about fractions and percentages? Exact or rounded values? We present an eye-tracking study that attempts to answer these questions for Spanish, using fixation and reading time to measure readability as well as comprehension questions to score understandability. We… (More)
1 WCAG 2.0 (W3C Recommendation 11 Dec. 2008) recommendation includes a specific guideline regarding the readability of text contents. This paper presents an approach to adapt text to improve readability. We use existing guidelines for the development of easy to read materials together with natural language processing (NLP) methods to adapt text for people… (More)
It is well known that on every compact 3-manifold there is a C 1 flow displaying a singular-hyperbolic isolated set which has no periodic orbits [BDV], [M1]. By contrast, in this paper we prove that every singular-hyperbolic attracting set of a C 1 flow on a compact 3-manifold has a periodic orbit.
The purpose of this paper is to motivate and describe a system that simplifies numerical expression in texts, along with an evaluation study in which experts in numeracy and literacy assessed the outputs of this system. We have worked with a collection of newspaper articles with a significant number of numerical expressions. The results are discussed in… (More)
Due to the challenges faced by resource managers in maintaining post-fire ecosystem health, there is a need for methods to assess the ecological consequences of disturbances. This research examines an approach for assessing changes in post-fire vegetation dynamics for sites in Spain, Israel and the USA that burned in 1998, 1999 and 2002 respectively.… (More)
Numerical information is very common in all kinds of documents from newspapers and magazines to household bills and wage slips. However, many people find it difficult to understand , particularly people with poor education and disabilities. Sometimes numerical information is presented with hedges that modify the meaning. A numerical hedge is a word or… (More)
Operant conditioning techniques have been shown to be sensitive to the acute effects of industrial solvents. In the first experiment, five rats trained in a multiple schedule with a fixed-ratio (FR) 10 component and a differential reinforcement of low rates (DRL) 20-sec component, with a time out 60-sec between reinforcement periods, were exposed to 0.25,… (More)