Susana Álvarez

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Retinoic acid (RA) treatment of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells results in activation of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway, and this activation is required for RA-induced differentiation. Here we show that RA activates PI3K and ERK1/2 MAPK signaling pathways through a rapid, nongenomic mechanism that does not require new gene transcription(More)
This study investigates the effect of feeding fermented milks with Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus and a mixture of both micro-organisms on the specific and non-specific host defence mechanisms in Swiss mice. Animals fed with fermented milk for 8 days (100 micrograms/day) showed an increase in both phagocytic and lymphocytic activity. This(More)
Axonal loss and degeneration are major factors in determining long-term outcome in patients with peripheral nerve disorders or injury. Following loss of axonal continuity, the isolated nerve stump distal to the lesion undergoes Wallerian degeneration in several phases. In the initial 'latent' phase, action potential propagation and structural integrity of(More)
The immune system consists of organs and several cell types. Antigen interaction with these cells induces a cellular immune response mediated by activated cells and a humoral immune response mediated by antibodies. The cellular interactions are enhanced by adhesion molecules, and the activated cells release different cytokines. These complex cellular(More)
OBJECTIVES Recently, we have demonstrated that human detrusor smooth muscle cells in culture secrete the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein 1. In the present study, we extended these studies to include the effect of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-1beta on IL-8, IL-6, and RANTES (regulated on(More)
The induction of a mucosal immune response is not easy due to the development of oral tolerance, but under some conditions, bacteria can activate this immune system. Antigens administered orally can interact with M cells of Peyer's patches or bind to the epithelial cells. We have demonstrated that certain lactic acid bacteria are able to induce specific(More)
We studied the effect of Lactobacillus casei CRL 431 used as a supplement in a repletion diet on the resistance to Streptococcus pneumoniae respiratory infection in malnourished mice. Weaned mice were malnourished after they consumed a protein-free diet (PFD) for 21 d. Malnourished mice were fed a balanced conventional diet (BCD) with or without(More)
Lactococcus lactis NZ9000 is a non-pathogenic non-invasive bacterium extensively used for the delivery of antigens and cytokines at the mucosal level. However, there are no reports concerning the per se immunomodulatory capacity of this strain. The aim of the present study was to investigate the intrinsic immunostimulating properties of the nasal(More)
The immune stimulation induced by Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL1505 (Lr05) and L. rhamnosus CRL1506 (Lr06) on the resistance to infection with an intestinal pathogen (Salmonella typhimurium) and a respiratory pathogen (Streptococcus pneumoniae) was studied in swiss-albine mice experimental models. The cytokine profiles that induced the innate and specific(More)
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE Oral immunization with Lactococcus lactis PppA (LPA+), a recombinant strain that is able to express the pneumococcal protective protein A, can improve the resistance to respiratory challenge with Streptococcus pneumoniae in adult mice. In this study, we investigated whether oral immunization protocols using LPA+ are able to protect young(More)