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In recent years, the meso-diencephalic dopaminergic (mdDA) neurons have been extensively studied for their association with Parkinson's disease. Thus far, specification of the dopaminergic phenotype of mdDA neurons is largely attributed to the orphan nuclear receptor Nurr1. In this study, we provide evidence for extensive interplay between Nurr1 and the(More)
Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) is a chronic neurological disorder characterized by recurrent seizures. The pathogenic mechanisms underlying mTLE may involve defects in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs that control the expression of genes at the post-transcriptional level. Here, we performed(More)
The advent of polymerase chain reaction technology has provoked a large amount of progress in the field of fish major histocompatibility complex (MHC) research. Many new teleost sequences have been reported in the last four years, including representatives of all classes of MHC genes. While the intron-exon structure of teleost MHC genes is now becoming(More)
Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) have been identified in the Mhc of the carp (MhcCyca) using class I (Cyca-Z) and class II (Cyca-YB) specific probes. The K1-5 and K2-1 probes were obtained as PCR products after amplification of genomic DNA from a European carp using primers deduced from genomic sequences, and were shown to be 90% and 80%(More)
In the context of studies on the expression of MhcCyca-Z sequences of the common carp, PCR amplifications of exon 4 were performed on cDNA obtained from pooled thymi of 20 carp F1 individuals. Five recombinant clones (Cyca-TC3, -TC13, -TC15, -TC17 and -TC18) were found to be 96% similar to the exon 4 region of Cyca-ZA1. Each of the five sequences was(More)
A simple theoretical model was suggested to describe quantitatively the effect of water content and nature of organic solvents on catalytic behavior of enzymes suspended in low-water media. The model was based on a generally accepted notion that the destruction of the protein hydration shell is one of the main reasons for protein denaturation by organic(More)
To establish axonal connections growth cones must navigate multiple intermediate targets before reaching their final target. During this journey growth cones are guided by extracellular repulsive and attractive signals. Although initially identified as repulsive molecules, members of the semaphorin family include both attractants and repellents. How a(More)
Many guidance receptors are proteolytically cleaved by membrane-associated metalloproteases of the ADAM family, leading to the shedding of their ectodomains. Ectodomain shedding is crucial for receptor signaling and function, but how this process is controlled in neurons remains poorly understood. Here, we show that the transmembrane protein Lrig2(More)
Repulsive guidance molecule family members (RGMs) control fundamental and diverse cellular processes, including motility and adhesion, immune cell regulation, and systemic iron metabolism. However, it is not known how RGMs initiate signaling through their common cell-surface receptor, neogenin (NEO1). Here, we present crystal structures of the NEO1(More)
Bicaudal-D (BICD) belongs to an evolutionary conserved family of dynein adaptor proteins. It was first described in Drosophila as an essential factor in fly oogenesis and embryogenesis. Missense mutations in a human BICD homologue, BICD2, have been linked to a dominant mild early onset form of spinal muscular atrophy. Here we further examine the in vivo(More)