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IMPORTANCE Clostridium difficile is a major cause of health care-associated infection, but disagreement between diagnostic tests is an ongoing barrier to clinical decision making and public health reporting. Molecular tests are increasingly used to diagnose C difficile infection (CDI), but many molecular test-positive patients lack toxins that historically(More)
The field of brain-computer interface research has been rapidly expanding in recent years and has a wide range of interesting and compelling uses. EEG-based brain-computer interfaces currently allow users to type, play games, create music, or control prosthetic limbs. This thesis describes the development of Brainathlon, an open source software game that is(More)
Calpains are calcium- and thiol-dependent proteases whose dysregulation has been implicated in a number of diseases and conditions such as cardiovascular dysfunction, ischemic stroke, and Alzheimer's disease (AD). While the effects of calpain activity are evident, the precise mechanism(s) by which dysregulated calpain activity results in cellular(More)
Multi-Worm Tracker (MWT) is a real-time computer vision system that can simultaneously quantify motional patterns of multiple worms. MWT provides several behavioral parameters, including analysis of accurate real-time locomotion speed in the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans. Here, we determined locomotion speed of the Alzheimer's disease (AD) transgenic(More)
Sandhoff disease, a GM2 gangliosidosis caused by a deficiency in β-hexosaminidase, is characterized by progressive neurodegeneration. Although loss of neurons in association with lysosomal storage of glycosphingolipids occurs in patients with this disease, the molecular pathways that lead to the accompanying neurological defects are unclear. Using an(More)
In a large prospective comparison, the illumigene test detected Clostridium difficile in 98% of toxin-positive and 58% of toxin-negative samples confirmed positive by other methods. The Xpert was uniformly sensitive. Most samples with discrepant results had C. difficile concentrations below the illumigene limit of detection. The significance of low-level C.(More)
OBJECTIVE To develop an information model for automating evaluation of concordance between patient preferences and end-of-life care. METHODS We modeled and validated 15 end-of-life care preference option domains, to which we mapped preferences recorded in standardized advance care planning documents and 232 end-of-life care events defined by procedure and(More)
Calpains are calcium- and thiol-dependent proteases whose overactivation and degradation of various substrates have been implicated in a number of diseases and conditions such as cardiovascular dysfunction and ischemic stroke. With increasing evidence for calpain's role in cellular damage, the development of calpain inhibitors continues to be an important(More)
Tay-Sachs and Sandhoff diseases are lethal inborn errors of acid β-N-acetylhexosaminidase activity, characterized by lysosomal storage of GM2 ganglioside and related glycoconjugates in the nervous system. The molecular events that lead to irreversible neuronal injury accompanied by gliosis are unknown; but gene transfer, when undertaken before neurological(More)
other members of our RIETI study group for providing insights and comments on the earlier version of this manuscript. RIETI Discussion Papers Series aims at widely disseminating research results in the form of professional papers, thereby stimulating lively discussion. The views expressed in the papers are solely those of the author(s), and do not present(More)