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Serologic testing for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) is the primary way to identify persons with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Testing has been recommended previously for pregnant women, infants born to HBsAg-positive mothers, household contacts and sex partners of HBV-infected persons, persons born in countries with HBsAg prevalence of(More)
This report is the first of a two-part statement from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) that updates the strategy to eliminate hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission in the United States. The report provides updated recommendations to improve prevention of perinatal and early childhood HBV transmission, including implementation of(More)
The availability of prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines has provided powerful tools for primary prevention of cervical cancer and other HPV-associated diseases. Since 2006, the quadrivalent and bivalent vaccines have each been licensed in over 100 countries. By the beginning of 2012, HPV vaccine had been introduced into national immunization(More)
OBJECTIVES To explore the increased incidence of intravenous immunoglobulin- (IVIG) resistance among San Diego County patients with Kawasaki disease (KD) in 2006 and to evaluate a scoring system to predict IVIG-resistant patients with KD. STUDY DESIGN We performed a retrospective review of patients with KD treated within 10 days of fever onset. With(More)
Since publication of CDC's 1993 guidelines (CDC, Recommendations for the prevention and management of Chlamydia trachomatis infections, 1993. MMWR 1993;42[No. RR-12]:1-39), nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) have been introduced as critical new tools to diagnose and treat C. trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections. NAATs for C. trachomatis(More)
OBJECTIVE To collect information about the safety of taking antiretroviral drugs for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) postexposure prophylaxis (PEP). DESIGN A voluntary, confidential registry. SETTING Hospital occupational health clinics, emergency departments, private physician offices, and health departments in the United States. RESULTS 492(More)
BACKGROUND Over the past 60 years, Neisseria gonorrhoeae has acquired clinically significant resistance to sulfonamides, tetracyclines, penicillins, and ciprofloxacin. OBJECTIVE To determine U.S. trends in the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance of N. gonorrhoeae from 1988 to 2003. DESIGN 16-year, multisite, sentinel surveillance for gonococcal(More)
OBJECTIVES Gonorrhea cases among men who have sex with men (MSM) declined in the early years of the HIV epidemic. We evaluated more recent trends in gonorrhea among MSM through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project. METHODS Isolates and case information were collected from 29 US sexually transmitted(More)
BACKGROUND In November 2011, the GAVI Alliance made the decision to add HPV vaccine as one of the new vaccines for which countries eligible for its funding (less than $1520 per capita income) could apply to receive support for national HPV vaccination, provided they could demonstrate the ability to deliver HPV vaccines. This paper describes the data and(More)
IMPORTANCE Clostridium difficile is a major cause of health care-associated infection, but disagreement between diagnostic tests is an ongoing barrier to clinical decision making and public health reporting. Molecular tests are increasingly used to diagnose C difficile infection (CDI), but many molecular test-positive patients lack toxins that historically(More)