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Chemokines are believed to play a role in the neuropathogenesis of AIDS through their recruitment of neurotoxin-secreting, virally infected leukocytes into the CNS. Levels of chemokines are elevated in brains of patients and macaques with HIV/SIV-induced encephalitis. The chemokine receptors CCR3, CCR5, and CXCR4 are found on subpopulations of neurons in(More)
Tetherin, also known as BST2, CD317 or HM1.24, was recently identified as an interferon-inducible host-cell factor that interferes with the detachment of virus particles from infected cells. HIV-1 overcomes this restriction by expressing an accessory protein, Vpu, which counteracts tetherin. Since lentiviruses of the SIV(smm/mac)/HIV-2 lineage do not have a(More)
Central nervous system (CNS) disease is a major feature of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of macaques. To define the spectrum of CNS lesions in SIV-infected macaques and the potential associations with viral strain and disease course, we performed a retrospective analysis of necropsies on 124 macaques with SIV-induced AIDS. Histologic(More)
High resolution ex vivo diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies of neural tissues can improve our understanding of brain structure. In these studies we can modify the tissue relaxation properties of the fixed tissues to better suite the scanner hardware. We investigated the use of Gd-DTPA contrast agent to provide the optimum signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio in(More)
Myeloproliferative syndromes (MPS) are a heterogeneous subclass of nonlymphoid hematopoietic neoplasms which are considered to be intrinsic to hematopoietic cells. The causes of MPS are largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that mice deficient for retinoic acid receptor gamma (RARgamma), develop MPS induced solely by the RARgamma-deficient microenvironment.(More)
Perivascular macrophages are uniquely situated at the intersection between the nervous and immune systems. Although combined myeloid marker detection differentiates perivascular from resident brain macrophages (parenchymal microglia), no single marker distinguishes perivascular macrophages in humans and mice. Here, we present the macrophage scavenger(More)
Trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) is a G protein-coupled receptor that directly responds to endogenous monoamines as well as amphetamine-related psychostimulants, including methamphetamine. In the present study, we demonstrate TAAR1 mRNA and protein expression in rhesus monkey brain regions associated with monoaminergic systems, variable cellular(More)
The generation of humanized BLT mice by the cotransplantation of human fetal thymus and liver tissues and CD34(+) fetal liver cells into nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency mice allows for the long-term reconstitution of a functional human immune system, with human T cells, B cells, dendritic cells, and monocytes/macrophages repopulating(More)
The neurological complications of HIV infection remain poorly understood. Clinically, in vivo 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) demonstrates brain injury caused by HIV infection even when the MRI is normal. Our goal was to undertsand the dynamics of cerebral injury by performing a longitudinal in vivo 1H MRS study of the SIV/macaque model of(More)
In brain monoaminergic systems, common biogenic amines, including dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin, serve as neurotransmitters. Monoamine autoreceptors provide feedback regulation in neurotransmitter release, and monoamine transporters clear the released neurotransmitters to control synaptic signaling. Recently, trace amine-associated receptor 1(More)