Susan Tvaroha

Learn More
BACKGROUND We sought to determine the prevalence of active tuberculosis among ambulatory HIV-infected persons in Tanzania with CD4 cell counts of > or =200 cells/mm3 and a bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccination scar. METHODS Subjects who volunteered for a tuberculosis booster vaccine trial were screened for active tuberculosis by obtainment of a history,(More)
SETTING Health care workers and medical students in the United States subject to annual tuberculin skin testing. OBJECTIVE To use skin testing with Mycobacterium avium sensitin (MAS) to determine contemporary rates of infection with non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) and their effect on reactions to M. tuberculosis purified protein derivative (PPD). (More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether a multiple-dose series of an inactivated whole cell mycobacterial vaccine, Mycobacterium vaccae, can prevent HIV-associated tuberculosis. DESIGN AND METHODS The DarDar trial was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. The study was carried in an outpatient facility in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. HIV-infected(More)
OBJECTIVES To identify the sources of disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection in AIDS. METHODS HIV positive subjects with CD4 counts <100/mm(3) in Atlanta, Boston, New Hampshire and Finland were entered in a prospective cohort study. Subjects were interviewed about potential MAC exposures, had phlebotomy performed for determination of(More)
BACKGROUND Active tuberculosis (TB) is common among HIV-infected persons living in tuberculosis endemic countries, and screening for tuberculosis (TB) is recommended routinely. We sought to determine the role of chest x-ray and sputum culture in the decision to treat for presumptive TB using active case finding in a large cohort of HIV-infected patients. (More)
Five doses of inactivated Mycobacterium vaccae vaccine were administered intradermally to 22 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients (11 bacille Calmette-Guérin [BCG]-positive and 11 BCG-negative) in Zambia whose CD4 lymphocyte counts were >/=200 cells/mm(3). HIV viral load and lymphocyte proliferation responses were compared for vaccine(More)
The safety and immunogenicity of heat-killed Mycobacterium vaccae vaccine were investigated in a pilot study assessing the feasibility of immunization to prevent mycobacterial disease in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Fifteen (seven healthy and eight HIV-positive subjects) received five doses of M. vaccae vaccine. Lymphocyte(More)
OBJECTIVE Prior to the widespread use of Mycobacterium bovis, Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG), inactivated whole cell mycobacterial vaccines had been shown effective in the prevention of tuberculosis. The present study was conducted to determine the safety and immunogenicity of an inactivated whole cell mycobacterial vaccine in persons with HIV(More)
BACKGROUND Disseminated tuberculosis (TB) is a major cause of death in patients with the acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (AIDS), but its pathogenesis and clinical features have not been defined prospectively. METHODS Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected adults with a CD4 count ≥ 200 cells/μl and bacille Calmette-Guérin scar underwent(More)
  • 1