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We assessed axonal loss in the normal appearing white matter of the corpus callosum in postmortem brains of patients with multiple sclerosis, using quantitative measures of both axonal density and white matter atrophy. The calculated total number of axons was reduced significantly (mean +/- SD, 5.4 x 10(7) +/- 3.1 x 10(7)) compared with normal controls(More)
Calcium can ameliorate Na+ toxicity in plants by decreasing Na+ influx through nonselective cation channels. Here, we show that elevated external [Ca2+] also inhibits Na+ -induced K+ efflux through outwardly directed, K+ -permeable channels. Noninvasive ion flux measuring and patch-clamp techniques were used to characterize K+ fluxes from Arabidopsis(More)
Previous imaging studies have suggested that there is substantial axonal loss in the normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) of brains from multiple sclerosis patients and that this axonal loss may be an important determinant of disability. Recently, substantial axonal loss in the NAWM has been confirmed directly in post-mortem tissue. Whether the NAWM changes(More)
Physiological measurements of nitrate (NO(3)(-)) uptake by roots have defined two systems of high and low affinity uptake. In Arabidopsis, genes encoding both of these two uptake systems have been identified. Most is known about the high affinity transport system (HATS) and its regulation and yet measurements of soil NO(3)(-) show that it is more often(More)
Although multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease, there can be substantial axonal injury and loss. We therefore hypothesized that adaptive cortical changes may contribute to limiting functional impairment, particularly in the early stages of the disease. To test our hypothesis, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to(More)
In 1960, progressive sensorineural deafness (McKusick 304,700, DFN-1) was shown to be X-linked based on a description of a large Norwegian pedigree. More recently, it was shown that this original DFN-1 family represented a new type of recessive neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by postlingual progressive sensorineural deafness as the first presenting(More)
White matter (WM) fractional anisotropy (FA) is thought to be related to WM integrity and decline in FA is often used as an index of decreasing WM health. However, the relationship of FA to other structural indices of cerebral health has not been well studied. We hypothesized that the decline in WM health will be associated with changes in several other(More)
Leukocyte migration is critical to maintaining host defense, but uncontrolled cellular infiltration into tissues can lead to chronic inflammation. In the lung, such diseases include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a debilitating, respiratory condition characterized by progressive and largely irreversible airflow limitation for which cigarette(More)
BACKGROUND Activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and oxidative modification of LDL cholesterol play important roles in atherosclerosis. The Study to Evaluate Carotid Ultrasound changes in patients treated with Ramipril and vitamin E (SECURE), a substudy of the Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation (HOPE) trial, was a prospective,(More)