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—Surface roughness is a crucial input for radar backscatter models. Roughness measurements of root mean-squared height (h rms) of the same surface can vary depending on the measuring instrument and how the data are processed. This letter addresses the error in h rms associated with instrument bias and instrument deployment issues such as number and length(More)
The Integral Equation Method (IEM) model and a newly defined delta index were used to estimate near surface soil moisture from C-band radar satellite imagery in a semi-arid rangeland in southern Arizona, USA. Model results were validated against soil moisture measurements made in the field at the time of satellite overpass. The IEM model performed poorly in(More)
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