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CONTEXT Understanding a speaker's communicative intent in everyday interactions is likely to draw on cues such as facial expression and tone of voice. Prior research has shown that individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) show reduced activity in brain regions that respond selectively to the face and voice. However, there is also evidence that(More)
Understanding the intended meaning of a remark beyond what is explicitly stated is an integral part of successful social interactions. Here, we examined the neural circuitry underlying the interpretation of communicative intent in children and adults using irony comprehension as a test case. Participants viewed cartoon drawings while listening to short(More)
The neural networks associated with processing metaphorical word meanings were investigated in normal adults using fMRI. Subjects listened to sets of three adjectives and decided whether the last two had a similar meaning. One condition required accessing the literal meaning of the middle word (e.g., hot-cold-chilly), whereas the other condition required(More)
While individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are typically impaired in interpreting the communicative intent of others, little is known about the neural bases of higher-level pragmatic impairments. Here, we used functional MRI (fMRI) to examine the neural circuitry underlying deficits in understanding irony in high-functioning children with ASD.(More)
The variable (V), (diversity [D]), and joining (J) region recombinases (recombination activating genes [RAGs]) can perform like transposases and are thought to have initiated development of the adaptive immune system in early vertebrates by splitting archaic V genes with transposable elements. In cartilaginous fishes, the immunoglobulin (Ig) light chain(More)
PURPOSE To determine the feasibility, safety, and effectiveness of an episcleral or deep scleral lamellar sustained release cyclosporine (CsA) device in a naturally occurring animal model of uveitis. METHODS A two-compartment perfusion chamber was used to assess in vitro human and equine scleral permeability of fluorescein, dexamethasone-fluorescein, or(More)
PURPOSE To determine the short and long-term pharmacokinetics and assess the toxicity of a cyclosporine (CsA) episcleral implant for the prevention of high-risk keratoplasty rejection. METHODS CsA episcleral implants were made with a high (implant A) or low (implant B) release rate, and in vitro release rates were performed. Short-term pharmacokinetics(More)
PURPOSE To develop a local drug delivery system that provides therapeutic cyclosporine levels to treat lacrimal gland graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. METHODS Episcleral cyclosporine implants were manufactured with a silicone-based matrix design, and in vitro release rates were determined. Preclinical(More)
Over a period of 3 yr, a series of ten NK clones that express a unique clonotypic T cell receptor-like structure, termed NKTa, has been generated from a single individual. These clones were derived from either peripheral blood nonadherent cell fractions (JT9, JT10, JT11), NKH2-purified cells (CNK8, CNK9), or NKTa-purified cells (CNK11, CNK12, CNK13, CNK14,(More)
Purpose. Pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) has been reported to reduce macular thickness and improve visual acuity in patients with diabetic macular edema (ME). The hypothesis for the study was that after PPV, clearance is accelerated and VEGF concentrations are reduced. To test this hypothesis, hVEGF(165) injections were performed in rabbit eyes, with and(More)