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We have investigated the mechanisms of leading edge formation in chemotaxing Dictyostelium cells. We demonstrate that while phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) transiently translocates to the plasma membrane in response to chemoattractant stimulation and to the leading edge in chemotaxing cells, PTEN, a negative regulator of PI3K pathways, exhibits a(More)
While individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are typically impaired in interpreting the communicative intent of others, little is known about the neural bases of higher-level pragmatic impairments. Here, we used functional MRI (fMRI) to examine the neural circuitry underlying deficits in understanding irony in high-functioning children with ASD.(More)
Understanding the intended meaning of a remark beyond what is explicitly stated is an integral part of successful social interactions. Here, we examined the neural circuitry underlying the interpretation of communicative intent in children and adults using irony comprehension as a test case. Participants viewed cartoon drawings while listening to short(More)
Silent Information Regulator 2 (Sir2) enzymes (or sirtuins) are NAD(+)-dependent deacetylases that modulate gene silencing, aging and energy metabolism. Previous work has implicated several transcription factors as sirtuin targets. Here, we investigated whether mammalian sirtuins could directly control the activity of metabolic enzymes. We demonstrate that(More)
Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)gamma and Dictyostelium PI3K are activated via G protein-coupled receptors through binding to the Gbetagamma subunit and Ras. However, the mechanistic role(s) of Gbetagamma and Ras in PI3K activation remains elusive. Furthermore, the dynamics and function of PI3K activation in the absence of extracellular stimuli have not(More)
Dictyostelium cells form a multicellular organism through the aggregation of independent cells. This process requires both chemotaxis and signal relay in which the chemoattractant cAMP activates adenylyl cyclase through the G protein-coupled cAMP receptor cAR1. cAMP is produced and secreted and it activates receptors on neighboring cells, thereby relaying(More)
Preimplantation development is a period of dynamic epigenetic change that begins with remodeling of egg and sperm genomes, and ends with implantation. During this time, parental-specific imprinting marks are maintained to direct appropriate imprinted gene expression. We previously demonstrated that H19 imprinting could be lost during preimplantation(More)
CONTEXT Understanding a speaker's communicative intent in everyday interactions is likely to draw on cues such as facial expression and tone of voice. Prior research has shown that individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) show reduced activity in brain regions that respond selectively to the face and voice. However, there is also evidence that(More)
Germ cells undergo epigenetic modifications as they develop, which suggests that they may be ideal donors for nuclear transfer (cloning). In this study, nuclei from confirmed embryonic germ cells were used as donors to determine whether they are competent for cloning and at which stage they are most competent. Embryos cloned from migrating(More)