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BACKGROUND Inadequate dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D may contribute to the high prevalence of osteoporosis among older persons. METHODS We studied the effects of three years of dietary supplementation with calcium and vitamin D on bone mineral density, biochemical measures of bone metabolism, and the incidence of nonvertebral fractures in 176 men(More)
This study examines the association between bone mineral density (BMD) and a start codon polymorphism (SCP) at the translation initiation site of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene. The thymine/cytosine (T/C) polymorphism in the first of two start (ATG) codons can be detected by a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) using the endonuclease FokI,(More)
CONTEXT Osteocalcin has been reported to contribute to the regulation of glucose tolerance and insulin secretion and sensitivity in experimental animals. OBJECTIVE Our objective was to examine the association between serum osteocalcin concentration and markers of dysmetabolic phenotype using data from a completed clinical trial in adults age 65 and older(More)
Rates of change in bone mineral density (BMD) at four skeletal sites were measured in 288 healthy postmenopausal women (41-71 years) who were participants in a 2-year calcium supplement trial. Mean calcium intake from food and supplements was 719 +/- 299 (sd) mg/day during the study. Annualized change in spine (L2-4) BMD, adjusted for body size, dietary(More)
The validity of recall of early menstrual characteristics is of interest because of their putative role in the etiology of breast cancer and other diseases. A retrospective follow-up of the Newton Girls Study (1965-1975) provided an opportunity to assess the accuracy and precision of recall of several early menstrual characteristics. In 1998-1999, 57(More)
We conducted a study to determine whether increasing vitamin D intake above the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of 5.0 micrograms (200 IU)/d reduces bone loss in healthy postmenopausal women residing at latitude 42 degrees N. In this double-blind, randomized 2-y trial, we enrolled 247 healthy ambulatory postmenopausal women who consumed an average of(More)
The finding that the link between polymorphism at the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene and rates of bone loss from the femoral neck in postmenopausal women is enhanced at low calcium intakes suggests that intestinal calcium absorption is a site of differential action of the VDR alleles. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25-(OH)2D] and its receptor mediate active(More)
We conducted a study to determine whether a recently described restriction fragment length polymorphism in the vitamin D receptor gene (VDR-RFLP) predicts bone mineral density (BMD) in unrelated, premenopausal women as well as to determine the racial contribution to any genotypic influences on BMD. White (n = 83) and black (n = 72) women between 20 and 40(More)
Wintertime declines in vitamin D lead to increased concentrations of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and accelerated bone loss in postmenopausal women. We conducted this study to compare calcidiol (25-hydroxyvitamin D) concentrations of men and women, to examine the influence of season, travel, vitamin D intake, and other variables on these concentrations, and to(More)
This report examines the wintertime vitamin D and PTH status of 308 participants in the Boston Low Income Elderly Osteoporosis Study of noninstitutionalized low income elderly men and women (age, 64-100 yr) living in subsidized housing in Boston, MA. Twenty-one percent of the 136 black subjects and 11% of the 110 whites had very low plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin(More)