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BACKGROUND Although disuse of skeletal muscle and undernutrition are often cited as potentially reversible causes of frailty in elderly people, the efficacy of interventions targeted specifically at these deficits has not been carefully studied. METHODS We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled trial comparing progressive resistance exercise training,(More)
BACKGROUND Recent studies have questioned the accuracy of using the current recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) to predict usual energy requirements in adults. OBJECTIVE We developed equations to predict adult energy requirements from simple anthropometric and laboratory measures by using the doubly labeled water method to determine each subject's total(More)
Primary rat microglia stimulated with either ATP or 2'- and 3'-O-(4-benzoylbenzoyl)-ATP (BzATP) release copious amounts of superoxide (O(2)(-)*). ATP and BzATP stimulate O(2)(-)* production through purinergic receptors, primarily the P2X(7) receptor. O(2)(-)* is produced through the activation of the NADPH oxidase. Although both p42/44 MAPK and p38 MAPK(More)
Recommendations for increased consumption of protein are among the most common approaches of popular or fad diets. This review summarizes the effects of dietary protein on satiety, energy intake, thermogenesis, and weight loss, as well as its effect on a variety of health outcomes in adults. In short-term studies, dietary protein modulates energy intake via(More)
BACKGROUND Factors affecting the accuracy of reported energy intake (rEI) need to be identified. OBJECTIVE Our objective was to investigate the association of psychological measures of eating behavior with the accuracy of rEI assessed by 7-d weighed intakes, a 24-h recall, and a food-frequency questionnaire. DESIGN Subjects were 26 restrained eaters(More)
OBJECTIVE To review existing methods and illustrate the use of a new, simple method for identifying inaccurate reports of dietary energy intake (rEI). DESIGN Comparison of rEI with energy requirements estimated by using total energy expenditure predicted (pTEE) from age, weight, height and sex using a previously published equation. Propagation of error(More)
To investigate the prevalence of obesity and malnutrition in the poor Brazilian population we conducted a survey on the socioeconomic and nutritional status of 535 families (comprising 2,411 individuals) living in shantytowns in the city of São Paulo. There was a 30% prevalence of malnutrition in the children, with chronic malnutrition as the most(More)
BACKGROUND The specific underlying causes of adult weight gain remain uncertain. OBJECTIVE The objective was to determine the association of 3 measures of eating behavior with weight gain and body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) in adults. DESIGN Current dietary restraint, disinhibition, and hunger were assessed with the use of the Eating Inventory in 638(More)
Hypertension, dyslipidemia and overweight contribute substantially to cardiovascular disease risk. One of the most effective methods for improving high blood pressure and lipid profiles is loss of excess weight. Other recommendations for reducing cardiovascular risk include changes in dietary micronutrient, macronutrient and fiber intakes. To better define(More)
The influence of dietary fiber on energy regulation remains controversial. This review summarizes published studies on the effects of dietary fiber on hunger, satiety, energy intake, and body composition in healthy individuals. Under conditions of fixed energy intake, the majority of studies indicate that an increase in either soluble or insoluble fiber(More)