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PURPOSE The membrane-associated mucin MUC16, a heavily O-glycosylated transmembrane protein, is expressed by the ocular surface epithelia and localized on the tips of the surface microplicae. Although its functions in the ocular surface glycocalyx are unknown, it is thought that MUC16 provides a disadhesive barrier to the epithelial membrane. Two other(More)
Recent genomic analyses of Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain EDL933 revealed two loci encoding urease gene homologues (ureDABCEFG), which are absent in nonpathogenic E. coli strain K-12. This report demonstrates that the cloned EDL933 ure gene cluster is capable of synthesizing urease in an E. coli DH5alpha background. However, when the gene fragment is(More)
Proteus mirabilis, a gram-negative bacterium associated with complicated urinary tract infections, produces a metalloenzyme urease which hydrolyzes urea to ammonia and carbon dioxide. The apourease is comprised of three structural subunits, UreA, UreB, and UreC, assembled as a homotrimer of individual UreABC heterotrimers (UreABC)(3). To become(More)
Bacterial infections of the eye highlight a dilemma that is central to all immune-privileged sites. On the one hand, immune privilege limits inflammation to prevent bystander destruction of normal tissue and loss of vision. On the other hand, bacterial infections require a robust inflammatory response for rapid clearance of the pathogen. We demonstrate that(More)
We have identified two chromosomal open reading frames in uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strain CFT073 which are highly homologous to serine protease autotransporters Pic and Tsh. Both cloned determinants were correlated with the presence of 105- to 110-kDa proteins in the culture supernatants. Furthermore, in cellular fractionation experiments,(More)
Studies have shown that epithelium-expressed antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), e.g., β-defensins, play a role in clearing bacteria from mouse corneas already infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Less is known about the role of AMPs in allowing the cornea to resist infection when healthy. We previously reported that contact lens exposure, a major cause of P.(More)
The mucin-rich environment of the intact corneal epithelium is thought to contribute to the prevention of Staphylococcus aureus infection. This study examined whether O-glycans, which constitute the majority of the mucin mass of epithelial cell glycocalyces, prevented bacterial adhesion and growth. Abrogation of mucin O glycosylation using the chemical(More)
Invasive Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) can enter epithelial cells wherein they mediate formation of plasma membrane bleb-niches for intracellular compartmentalization. This phenotype, and capacity for intracellular replication, requires the ADP-ribosyltransferase (ADPr) activity of ExoS, a PA type III secretion system (T3SS) effector protein. Thus, PA T3SS(More)
Dry eye disease can cause ocular surface inflammation that disrupts the corneal epithelial barrier. While dry eye patients are known to have an increased risk of corneal infection, it is not known whether there is a direct causal relationship between these two conditions. Here, we tested the hypothesis that experimentally-induced dry eye (EDE) increases(More)
Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of invasive infection. It also infects wet mucosal tissues including the cornea and conjunctiva. Conflicting evidence exists on the expression of Toll-like receptors by human corneal epithelial cells. It was therefore of interest to determine how epithelial cells from this immune privileged tissue respond to S.(More)