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A novel extreme alkaliphile was isolated from a mine water containment dam at 3.2 km below land surface in an ultra-deep gold mine near Carletonville, South Africa. The cells of this bacterium were straight to slightly curved rods, motile by flagella and formed endospores. Growth was observed over the temperature range 20-50 degrees C (optimum 40 degrees C;(More)
Microbial release of greenhouse gases from thawing permafrost is a global concern. Seventy-six metagenomes were generated from low-soil-organic-carbon mineral cryosols from Axel Heiberg Island, Nunavut, Canada, during a controlled thawing experiment. Permafrost thawing resulted in an increase in anaerobic fermenters and sulfate-reducing bacteria but not(More)
A scientific drilling expedition to the High Lake region of Nunavut, Canada, was recently completed with the goals of collecting samples and delineating gradients in salinity, gas composition, pH, pe, and microbial abundance in a 400 m thick permafrost zone and accessing the underlying pristine subpermafrost brine. With a triple-barrel wireline tool and the(More)
Considering that 25% of Earth's terrestrial surface is underlain by permafrost (ground that has been continuously frozen for at least 2 years), our understanding of the diversity of microbial life in this extreme habitat is surprisingly limited. Taking into account the total mass of perennially frozen sediment (up to several hundred meters deep), permafrost(More)
The waters of the Eastern Mediterranean are characterized by unique physical and chemical properties within separate water masses occupying different depths. Distinct water masses are present throughout the oceans, which drive thermohaline circulation. These water masses may contain specific microbial assemblages. The goal of this study was to examine the(More)
Research in the deep terrestrial biosphere is driven by interest in novel biodiversity and metabolisms, biogeochemical cycling, and the impact of human activities on this ecosystem. As this interest continues to grow, it is important to ensure that when subsurface investigations are proposed, materials recovered from the subsurface are sampled and preserved(More)
Methane (CH4) emission by carbon-rich cryosols at the high latitudes in Northern Hemisphere has been studied extensively. In contrast, data on the CH4 emission potential of carbon-poor cryosols is limited, despite their spatial predominance. This work employs CH4 flux measurements in the field and under laboratory conditions to show that the mineral(More)
The Caspian Sea is heavily polluted due to industrial and agricultural effluents as well as extraction of oil and gas reserves. Microbial communities can influence the fate of contaminants and nutrients. However, insight into the microbial ecology of the Caspian Sea significantly lags behind other marine systems. Here we describe microbial biomass,(More)
High-quality draft genome sequences were determined for 10 Exiguobacterium strains in order to provide insight into their evolutionary strategies for speciation and environmental adaptation. The selected genomes include psychrotrophic and thermophilic species from a range of habitats, which will allow for a comparison of metabolic pathways and stress(More)
In a complex environment, it can be difficult to assess the degree to which an environmental variable influences microbial community structure. We propose a method that uses the community data to "predict" the value of the presumed dominant variable. The assumption is that in order to "predict" the variable, the community composition must be sensitive to or(More)