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A novel extreme alkaliphile was isolated from a mine water containment dam at 3.2 km below land surface in an ultra-deep gold mine near Carletonville, South Africa. The cells of this bacterium were straight to slightly curved rods, motile by flagella and formed endospores. Growth was observed over the temperature range 20-50 degrees C (optimum 40 degrees C;(More)
Alkaline, sulfidic, 54 to 60 degrees C, 4 to 53 million-year-old meteoric water emanating from a borehole intersecting quartzite-hosted fractures >3.3 km beneath the surface supported a microbial community dominated by a bacterial species affiliated with Desulfotomaculum spp. and an archaeal species related to Methanobacterium spp. The geochemical(More)
Rock, air and service water samples were collected for microbial analyses from 3.2 kilometres depth in a working Au mine in the Witwatersrand basin, South Africa. The approximately metre-wide mined zone was comprised of a carbonaceous, quartz, sulphide, uraninite and Au bearing layer, called the Carbon Leader, sandwiched by quartzite and conglomerate. The(More)
Values of Delta(34)S (=delta(34)S(HS)-delta(34)S(SO(4)), where delta(34)S(HS) and delta(34)S(SO(4)) indicate the differences in the isotopic compositions of the HS(-) and SO(4)(2-) in the eluent, respectively) for many modern marine sediments are in the range of -55 to -75 per thousand, much greater than the -2 to -46 per thousand epsilon(34)S (kinetic(More)
Geochemical and biological estimates of in situ microbial activities were compared from the aerobic and microaerophilic sediments of the Atlantic Coastal Plain. Radioisotope time-course experiments suggested oxidation rates greater than millimolar quantities per year for acetate and glucose. Geochemical analyses assessing oxygen consumption, soluble organic(More)
Microbial release of greenhouse gases from thawing permafrost is a global concern. Seventy-six metagenomes were generated from low-soil-organic-carbon mineral cryosols from Axel Heiberg Island, Nunavut, Canada, during a controlled thawing experiment. Permafrost thawing resulted in an increase in anaerobic fermenters and sulfate-reducing bacteria but not(More)
High-quality draft genome sequences were determined for 10 Exiguobacterium strains in order to provide insight into their evolutionary strategies for speciation and environmental adaptation. The selected genomes include psychrotrophic and thermophilic species from a range of habitats, which will allow for a comparison of metabolic pathways and stress(More)
A scientific drilling expedition to the High Lake region of Nunavut, Canada, was recently completed with the goals of collecting samples and delineating gradients in salinity, gas composition, pH, pe, and microbial abundance in a 400 m thick permafrost zone and accessing the underlying pristine subpermafrost brine. With a triple-barrel wireline tool and the(More)
The impact of pollution on soil microbial communities and subsequent bioremediation can be measured quantitatively in situ using direct, non-culture-dependent techniques. Such techniques have advantages over culture-based methods, which often account for less than 1% of the extant microbial community. In 1988, a JP-4 fuel spill contaminated the(More)
Lipid droplets consist of a core of neutral lipids surrounded by a phospholipid monolayer with bound proteins. Much of the information on lipid droplet function comes from proteomic and lipodomic studies that identify the components of droplets isolated from organisms throughout the phylogenetic tree. Here, we add to that important inventory by reporting(More)