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SYNOPSIS. The developmental processes through which songbirds acquire their species-typical songs have been well-studied from a proximate perspective, but less attention has been given to the ultimate question of why birds learn to sing. We present a new hypothesis for the adaptive significance of song learning in song-birds, suggesting that this(More)
BACKGROUND Genetic subtypes of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) are used to determine risk and treatment in children. 25% of precursor B-ALL cases are genetically unclassified and have intermediate prognosis. We aimed to use a genome-wide study to improve prognostic classification of ALL in children. METHODS We constructed a classifier based on gene(More)
BACKGROUND Organic dust is a complex mixture of particulate matter from microbial, plant or animal origin. Occupations with exposure to animal products have been associated with an increased lung cancer risk, while exposure to microbial components (eg, endotoxin) has been associated with a decreased risk. To date there has not been a comprehensive(More)
Childhood brain tumors (CBT) are the leading cause of cancer death in children; their risk factors are still largely unknown. Since most CBTs are diagnosed before five years of age, prenatal exposure and early postnatal factors may be involved in their etiology. We investigated the association between CBT and parental occupational exposure to engine(More)
The evidence for an association between occupational asbestos exposure and esophageal, gastric and colorectal cancer is limited. We studied this association specifically addressing risk differences between relatively low and high exposure, risk associated with cancer subtypes, the influence of potential confounders and the interaction between asbestos and(More)
BACKGROUND Retrospective exposure assessment in community-based studies is largely reliant on questionnaire information. Expert assessment is often used to assess lifetime occupational exposures, but these assessments generally lack transparency and are very time-consuming. We explored the agreement between a rule-based assessment approach and case-by-case(More)
BACKGROUND Occupational exposures may be associated with non-vascular dementia. METHODS We analyzed the effects of occupational exposures to solvents, pesticides, metals, extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF), electrical shocks, and diesel motor exhaust on non-vascular dementia related mortality in the Netherlands Cohort Study (NLCS). Exposures(More)
RATIONALE Diesel motor exhaust is classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as probably carcinogenic to humans. The epidemiologic evidence is evaluated as limited because most studies lack adequate control for potential confounders and only a few studies have reported on exposure-response relationships. OBJECTIVES Investigate lung(More)
INTRODUCTION The aims of this study were to produce a population-based estimate of the prevalence of work-related exposure to lead and its compounds, to identify the main circumstances of exposures, and to collect information on the use of workplace control measures designed to decrease those exposures. METHODS Data came from the Australian Workplace(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe the approach underpinning a national project to estimate the numbers and proportions of cancers occurring in Australia in 2010 that are attributable to modifiable causal factors. METHODS We estimated the population attributable fraction (PAF) (or prevented fraction) of cancers associated with exposure to causal (or preventive)(More)