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Several species of nonhuman primates respond negatively to inequitable outcomes, a trait shared with humans. Despite previous research, questions regarding the response to inequity remain. In this study, we replicated the methodology from previous studies to address four questions related to inequity. First, we explored the impact of basic social factors.(More)
Humans are an unusually prosocial species-we vote, give blood, recycle, give tithes and punish violators of social norms. Experimental evidence indicates that people willingly incur costs to help strangers in anonymous one-shot interactions, and that altruistic behaviour is motivated, at least in part, by empathy and concern for the welfare of others(More)
One effective method for measuring personality in primates is to use personality trait ratings to distill the experience of people familiar with the individual animals. Previous rating instruments were created using either top-down or bottom-up approaches. Top-down approaches, which essentially adapt instruments originally designed for use with another(More)
Chimpanzees remain fixed on a single strategy, even if a novel, more efficient, strategy is introduced. Previous studies reporting such findings have incorporated paradigms in which chimpanzees learn one behavioural method and then are shown a new one that the chimpanzees invariably do not adopt. This study provides the first evidence that chimpanzees show(More)
Human behavior is not always consistent with standard rational choice predictions. Apparent deviations from rational choice predictions provide a promising arena for the merger of economics and biology [1-6]. Although little is known about the extent to which other species exhibit these seemingly irrational patterns [7-9], similarities across species would(More)
Emulation has been distinguished from imitation as a form of observational learning because it focuses not on the model's actions but on the action's environmental results. Whether a species emulates, imitates or displays only simpler observational learning is expected to have profound implications for its capacity for cultural transmission. Chimpanzees'(More)
BACKGROUND Economists believe that barter is the ultimate cause of social wealth--and even much of our human culture--yet little is known about the evolution and development of such behavior. It is useful to examine the circumstances under which other species will or will not barter to more fully understand the phenomenon. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) are(More)
There is currently great interest in the phylogenetic origins of altruistic behaviour within the primate order. Considerable attention has been focused on chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, because they are our closest living relatives and participate in a wide range of collective activities, including hunting and food sharing. Food sharing is of particular(More)
There is great interest in the evolution of economic behavior. In typical studies, species are asked to play one of a series of economic games, derived from game theory, and their responses are compared. The advantage of this approach is the relative level of consistency and control that emerges from the games themselves; however, in the typical experiment,(More)
Data collected from NHPs that are trained to participate voluntarily in husbandry, veterinary, and research procedures are likely to have particular value. The authors present the results of a series of studies that examined the effects of PRT on the performance by chimpanzees of a variety of biomedically relevant behaviors: presenting their perineum for(More)