Susan P. Holmes

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Current practice in the normalization of microbiome count data is inefficient in the statistical sense. For apparently historical reasons, the common approach is either to use simple proportions (which does not address heteroscedasticity) or to use rarefying of counts, even though both of these approaches are inappropriate for detection of differentially(More)
The dynamics of emerging nucleoside and nucleotide reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) resistance in hepatitis B virus (HBV) are not well understood because standard dideoxynucleotide direct polymerase chain reaction (PCR) sequencing assays detect drug-resistance mutations only after they have become dominant. To obtain insight into NRTI resistance, we(More)
Despite the high degree of HIV-1 protease and reverse transcriptase (RT) mutation in the setting of antiretroviral therapy, the spectrum of possible virus variants appears to be limited by patterns of amino acid covariation. We analyzed patterns of amino acid covariation in protease and RT sequences from more than 7,000 persons infected with HIV-1 subtype B(More)
Despite the critical role of the human microbiota in health, our understanding of microbiota compositional dynamics during and after pregnancy is incomplete. We conducted a case-control study of 49 pregnant women, 15 of whom delivered preterm. From 40 of these women, we analyzed bacterial taxonomic composition of 3,767 specimens collected prospectively and(More)
We present the open-source software package DADA2 for modeling and correcting Illumina-sequenced amplicon errors (https://github.com/benjjneb/dada2). DADA2 infers sample sequences exactly and resolves differences of as little as 1 nucleotide. In several mock communities, DADA2 identified more real variants and output fewer spurious sequences than other(More)
Classical multidimensional scaling (MDS) is a method for visualizing high-dimensional point clouds by mapping to low-dimensional Euclidean space. This mapping is defined in terms of eigenfunctions of a matrix of interpoint dissimilarities. In this paper we analyze in detail multidimensional scaling applied to a specific dataset: the 2005 United States House(More)
OBJECTIVES We characterized pairwise and higher order patterns of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-selected mutations because multiple mutations are usually required for clinically significant resistance to second-generation NNRTIs. PATIENTS AND METHODS We analysed viruses from 13 039 individuals with sequences containing at least(More)
We investigate how host mucus glycan composition interacts with dietary carbohydrate content to influence the composition and expressed functions of a human gut community. The humanized gnotobiotic mice mimic humans with a nonsecretor phenotype due to knockout of their α1-2 fucosyltransferase (Fut2) gene. The fecal microbiota of Fut2(-) mice that lack(More)
This paper presents a natural coordinate system for phylogenetic trees using a correspondence with the set of perfect matchings in the complete graph. This correspondence produces a distance between phylogenetic trees, and a way of enumerating all trees in a minimal step order. It is useful in randomized algorithms because it enables moves on the space of(More)