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Following reports of frequent deaths associated with jaundice and chronic liver disease among adults in a periurban community of Karachi, Pakistan, an investigation was conducted to evaluate the relationship between injections and viral hepatitis infections, to identify the reasons why patients received frequent injections, and to observe the injection(More)
OBJECTIVE The lack of standardized reference range for the homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index has limited its clinical application. This study defines the reference range of HOMA-IR index in an adult Hispanic population based with machine learning methods. METHODS This study investigated a Hispanic population of 1854(More)
BACKGROUND Ebola virus is one of the most virulent pathogens, killing a very high proportion of patients within 5-7 days. Two outbreaks of fulminating haemorrhagic fever occurred in northern Gabon in 1996, with a 70% case-fatality rate. During both outbreaks we identified some individuals in direct contact with sick patients who never developed symptoms. We(More)
AIM Study the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) and risk factors for and association with elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) as markers of hepatic injury in a large Hispanic health disparity cohort with high rates of obesity. METHODS Analysis of data from a prospective cross-sectional population based study. From 2004-7, we randomly recruited(More)
Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) is an often-lethal haemorrhagic fever caused by a tick-borne virus. There are no published data on ribavirin treatment of CCHF-infected patients, despite established in-vitro and in-vivo sensitivity. We report three health workers--two surgeons and a hospital worker--infected with CCHF virus in Pakistan who were(More)
BACKGROUND Although the biological basis for the increased susceptibility of diabetic patients to tuberculosis remains unclear, the world is undergoing a type 2 diabetes pandemic. We hypothesize that chronic hyperglycemia leads to immunocompromise that facilitates progression to active tuberculosis. To assess this possibility, we determined whether patients(More)
OBJECTIVE To estimate the contribution of clinically-confirmed diabetes mellitus to tuberculosis (TB) rates in communities where both diseases are prevalent as a way to identify opportunities for TB prevention among diabetic patients. METHODS This is a prospective study in which TB patients ≥ 20 years old at TB clinics in the Texas-Mexico border were(More)
BACKGROUND Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are major public health concerns worldwide, and their prevalence has only increased in recent years. Mexican Americans are disproportionately afflicted by obesity and T2D, and rates are even higher in the United States-Mexico border region. To determine the factors associated with the increased risk of T2D,(More)