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Heterogeneity within the autism diagnosis obscures the genetic basis of the disorder and impedes our ability to develop effective treatments. We found that by using two readily available tests, autism can be divided into two subgroups, "essential autism" and "complex autism," with different outcomes and recurrence risks. Complex autism consists of(More)
A large body of epidemiologic literature supports an inverse relation between birth weight and both systolic blood pressure and prevalence of hypertension, but mechanisms through which lower birth weight increases risk for hypertension are not established. This article advances the view that 1) permanently reduced nephron number is essential but not alone(More)
Nutritional and other environmental cues during development can permanently alter the structure, homeostatic systems, and functions of the body. This phenomenon has been referred to as 'programming'. Epidemiological and animal studies show that programmed effects operate within the normal range of growth and development, and influence the risk of chronic(More)
Knowledge of the fetal antecedents of cardiovascular disease has increased rapidly since the association between low birth weight and the disease was demonstrated 20 yr ago. It now is known that individuals who had low birth weight or who were thin or short at birth are at increased risk for both cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. This has been(More)
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common entity affecting hemodialysis patients. Although the cause of RLS remains unclear, a number of therapies have been used successfully to treat the disorder. Gabapentin is an anticonvulsant shown to alleviate symptoms of RLS in two small studies of nonhemodialysis patients. Because it is excreted renally, gabapentin(More)
BACKGROUND Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a common genetic disease with few treatment options other than renal replacement therapy. p21, a cyclin kinase inhibitor which has pleiotropic effects on the cell cycle, in many cases acts to suppress cell cycle progression and to prevent apoptosis. Because defects in cell cycle arrest and(More)
OBJECTIVES This study sought to evaluate the contribution of microvascular functional rarefaction and changes in vascular mechanical properties to the development of hypertension and secondary ventricular remodeling that occurs with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy. BACKGROUND Hypertension is a common side effect of VEGF inhibitors(More)
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is characterized by exuberant inflammation and fibrosis, a process believed to contribute to progressive loss of normal renal function. Despite early-onset hypertension and intrarenal renin/angiotensin II (AngII) activation, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition does not consistently confer renal(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is an inherited progressive disorder associated with significant pain and discomfort affecting quality of life. This study determined the impact of pain medication use and other clinical, biochemical and genetic characteristics on the physical and mental well being of predialysis(More)