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1. A two-electrode voltage clamp was used to record calcium currents from the excitatory and inhibitory nerve terminals that innervate the crayfish (Procambarus spp.) opener muscle. Other voltage-dependent currents were blocked with tetrodotoxin, 3,4-diaminopyridine, 4-aminopyridine and tetraethylammonium. 2. The presynaptic calcium current at both(More)
The degree to which genetic factors influence brain connectivity is beginning to be understood. Large-scale efforts are underway to map the profile of genetic effects in various brain regions. The NIH-funded Human Connectome Project (HCP) is providing data valuable for analyzing the degree of genetic influence underlying brain connectivity revealed by(More)
Individuals with a family history of substance use disorders (FH+) are at a greater risk of developing substance use disorders than their peers with no such family histories (FH-) and this vulnerability is proportional to the number of affected relatives (FH density). The risk for developing substance use disorders peaks during adolescence to early(More)
We hypothesized that reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) of water diffusion and its elevated aging-related decline in schizophrenia patients may be caused by elevated hyperintensive white matter (HWM) lesions, by reduced permeability-diffusivity index (PDI), or both. We tested this hypothesis in 40/30 control/patient participants. FA values for the corpus(More)
An increase in internal free calcium ([Ca2+]i) in the presynaptic terminal is often assumed to directly produce facilitation of neurotransmitter release. Using a Ca(2+)-activated potassium conductance as a bioassay for free [Ca2+]i in the presynaptic terminal of the crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) opener neuromuscular junction, we now demonstrate that free(More)
1. We used a two-microelectrode current clamp to investigate various characteristics of the Ca(2+)-activated K+ conductance [gK(Ca)] and Ca2+ conductance (gCa), and transmitter release in presynaptic terminals of excitatory neuromuscular junctions in the crayfish walking leg. 2. Voltage-activated Na+ conductances (gNa) and K+ conductances [gK(v)] were(More)
INTRODUCTION Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) methods can noninvasively ascertain cerebral microstructure by examining pattern and directions of water diffusion in the brain. We calculated heritability for DWI parameters in cerebral white (WM) and gray matter (GM) to study the genetic contribution to the diffusion signals across tissue boundaries. METHODS(More)
Combining datasets across independent studies can boost statistical power by increasing the numbers of observations and can achieve more accurate estimates of effect sizes. This is especially important for genetic studies where a large number of observations are required to obtain sufficient power to detect and replicate genetic effects. There is a need to(More)
1. The presynaptic terminals at crayfish (Procambarus spp.) opener neuromuscular junctions were voltage clamped. Calcium currents were measured during (ICa) and following (tail ICa) presynaptic depolarizations; EPSPs or IPSPs were simultaneously recorded from the (postsynaptic) muscle fibre directly beneath the presynaptic impalement. 2. For short (< or = 6(More)
Elevated rate of age-related decline in white matter integrity, indexed by fractional anisotropy (FA) from diffusion tensor imaging, was reported in patients with schizophrenia. Its etiology is unknown. We hypothesized that a decline of blood perfusion to the white matter may underlie the accelerated age-related reduction in FA in schizophrenia. Resting(More)