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Copper deficiency during embryonic and fetal development can result in numerous gross structural and biochemical abnormalities. Such a deficiency can arise through a variety of mechanisms, including low maternal dietary copper intake, disease-induced or drug-induced changes in maternal and conceptus copper metabolism, or both. These issues are discussed in(More)
Rat embryos (gestation days 9.0 and 10.0) obtained from dams that were fed a Cu-adequate (8 micrograms Cu/g) or Cu-deficient (< 0.5 micrograms Cu/g diet were cultured for 48 hr in Cu-adequate (16.2 microM) or Cu-deficient (1.0 microM) rat serum. Control embryos cultured in control serum were morphologically normal. Embryos from Cu-deficient dams developed(More)
The biological effects of vitamin A are mediated in part by retinoic acid (RA) modulation of gene transcription. In this study, we examined whether normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs) are biologically responsive to retinol (ROH), the metabolic precursor of RA. While both ROH and tRA resulted in time- and dose-dependent decreases in total cell(More)
The teratogenicity of copper (Cu) deficiency may result from increased oxidative stress and oxidative damage. Dams were fed either control (8.0 microg Cu/g) or Cu-deficient (0.5 microg Cu/g) diets. Embryos were collected on Gestational Day 12 for in vivo studies or on Gestational Day 10 and cultured for 48 h in Cu-deficient or Cu-adequate media for in vitro(More)
Male and female Fischer-344 rats were exposed either to filtered air (controls) or to 0.12, 0.5, or 1.0 parts per million (ppm)* ozone for six hours per day, five days per week, for 20 months. We examined collagen deposition in lung tissue from these animals to determine whether or not chronic exposure of rats to ozone causes pulmonary fibrosis, as defined(More)
Iron deficiency anemia is the most common nutritional deficiency disease worldwide and poses a major threat in women of child-bearing age and those who follow a vegetarian diet. The objective of this study was to ascertain whether differences exist in iron status markers between female university students following a vegetarian and nonvegetarian diet. This(More)
Vitamin A metabolites and retinoids may slow the progression of breast cancer and elicit anti-neoplastic properties similar to those of omega-3 fatty acids. Studies using animal models show a decrease in the incidence, growth and metastisis of mammary tumors in the presence of specific fatty acids. This effect is also seen with use of retinoids,(More)
The objective of this study was to examine the influence of aging on food intake, tissue and organ mass and NF-κB and SIRT6 levels in various tissues. The transcription factor, Nuclear Factor Kappa-B (NF-κB), is associated with both catabolic and anabolic pathways of muscle metabolism and may be involved in age-related muscle loss. SIRT6 is a member of the(More)
 During the first cell cycle, the prospective dorsal side of the embryo of Xenopus laevis becomes enriched in mitochondria relative to the ventral side. This differential distribution of mitochondria persists throughout early development, but it is not known if it is of functional significance, since there do not appear to be dorsal-ventral differences in(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the effects of two water-soluble dietary fibers, ultrahigh-viscosity hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (UHV-HPMC, nonfermentable) and psyllium fiber (fermentable), on postprandial glucose and second meal effects. METHODS In a single-blind crossover design, 12 healthy adult subjects were given standardized, premeasured breakfast and lunch(More)