Susan Mukavitz Kramer

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Infectious retroviruses have been detected in 22 of 45 randomly selected patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and in other individuals from San Francisco. The AIDS-associated retroviruses (ARV) studied in detail had a type D morphology, Mg2+-dependent reverse transcriptase, and cytopathic effects on lymphocytes. The viruses can be(More)
A sensitive, reproducible in vitro bioassay is described for quantitating the cytolytic activity of tumor necrosis factor (TNF). The assay target cells, murine connective tissue L-M, are propagated and the assay performed under serum-free conditions. The quantitation of cytolytic activity is based on the ability of TNF to lyse L-M cells in the presence of(More)
A critical step in the development of both qualitative and quantitative enzyme immunoassays is establishing the positive/negative discrimination, or cut-off, value. Data derived from an indirect immunofluorescence assay, hemagglutination inhibition, and enzyme immunoassay to detect IgG antibodies to measles virus were applied to a discriminant analysis(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of the adjuvant administration of interferon gamma on monocyte HLA-DR antigen expression and mitogen-stimulated interferon gamma production following injury. DESIGN Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. SETTING University Hospital, Newark, NJ, a level I trauma center. PATIENTS Persons older than 16 years(More)
We have investigated the in vitro and in vivo antitumor activities of recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-alpha (rHuTNF-alpha) against Meth A sarcoma. Meth A sarcoma cells were found to a) be relatively insensitive in vitro to rHuTNF-alpha, and b) express low numbers of TNF-alpha receptors. Intraperitoneally implanted Meth A sarcoma was insensitive to(More)
In 84 patients, aged 23 to 84, with primary hypothyroidism, the daily dose of thyroxine needed to lower the serum thyrotropin level into the normal range was significantly less in older patients than in younger ones (p less than 0.01). Most of the difference between middle-aged (40 to 60 years) and older patients (greater than 60 years) was due to a(More)
An enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for the detection of IgG antibodies to measles viral hemagglutinin (H) has been developed. Monoclonal antibodies were employed as antigen-capture reagents on a polystyrene ball solid phase. The antigen-capture EIA was significantly more sensitive than hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) and somewhat more sensitive than indirect(More)
A novel relaxin sensitive cell line of apparent smooth muscle origin has been established from a newborn rhesus monkey uterus (NRMU). NRMU cells respond to relaxin, in the presence of 1 μM forskolin, by producing intracellular adenosine 3′, 5′-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP). The increase in cAMP levels is dose, time and cell density dependent, reaching peak(More)
The species preference of human and murine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) was evaluated in human and murine systems for cytotoxic/cytostatic effects and receptor binding in vitro and murine systems for toxicity and antitumor activity in vivo. The in vitro cytotoxic/cytostatic effects of both species TNF-alpha on human and murine cell lines as well(More)
Given the increasing incidence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and the recent emergence of MRSA with a reduced susceptibility to vancomycin, alternative approaches to the treatment of infection are of increasing relevance. The purpose of these studies was to evaluate the effect of IFN-gamma on the ability of white blood cells to kill(More)