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Neural-epithelial interactions are hypothesized to play an important role in bladder function. We determined whether spinal cord injury (SCI) altered several indicators of urinary bladder epithelium barrier function, including continuity of the surface umbrella cell layer, transepithelial resistance (TER), and urea and water permeability. Within 2 h of SCI,(More)
All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. However, this publication may not be reproduced or distributed for a fee without specific, written authorization of the (2007). Comparing drug testing and self-report of drug use(More)
Lipid bilayers and biological membranes are freely permeable to CO(2), and yet partial CO(2) pressure in the urine is 3-4-fold higher than in blood. We hypothesized that the responsible permeability barrier to CO(2) resides in the umbrella cell apical membrane of the bladder with its dense array of uroplakin complexes. We found that disrupting the uroplakin(More)
Although water, small nonelectrolytes, and gases are freely permeable through most biological membranes, apical membranes of certain barrier epithelia exhibit extremely low permeabilities to these substances. The role of integral membrane proteins in this barrier function has been unclear. To study this problem, we have ablated the mouse gene encoding(More)
This study investigates intonation and timing characteristics of autistic and stuttering children's speech in English. Twelve children ranging from 7 to 14 years of age (four subjects from three groups, autistic, stuttering, control) participated in this study. They were asked to read sentences and then to repeat them after the experimenter. Results show(More)
The existence of mitochondrial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (mtNOS) has been controversial since it was first reported in 1995. We have addressed this issue by making direct microsensor measurements of NO production in the mitochondria isolated from mouse hearts. Mitochondrial NO production was stimulated by Ca2+ and inhibited by blocking electrogenic Ca2+(More)
Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) is an immunomodulatory neuropeptide widely distributed in neural pathways that regulate micturition. VIP is also an endogenous anti-inflammatory agent that has been suggested for the development of therapies for inflammatory disorders. In the present study, we examined urinary bladder function and hindpaw and pelvic(More)
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