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BACKGROUND Use of fluoroquinolones to treat paediatric cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis could affect the emergence of resistance to this class of drugs. Our aim was to estimate the incidence of, and risk factors for, invasive pneumococcal disease caused by fluoroquinolone-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in children in South Africa. METHODS(More)
BACKGROUND High antenatal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seroprevalence rates (∼ 30%) with low perinatal HIV transmission rates (2.5%), due to HIV prevention of mother-to-child transmission program improvements in South Africa, has resulted in increasing numbers of HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) children. We aimed to describe the epidemiology of(More)
BACKGROUND South Africa introduced 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in April 2009 using a 2 + 1 schedule (6 and 14 weeks and 9 months). We estimated the effectiveness of ≥2 PCV7 doses against invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and -uninfected children. METHODS IPD (pneumococcus identified from(More)
BACKGROUND An association between pneumococcal serotypes and mortality has been suggested. We aimed to investigate this among individuals aged ≥15 years with invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in South Africa. METHODS IPD cases were identified through national laboratory-based surveillance at 25 sites, pre-pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV)(More)
BACKGROUND The meningococcal capsule is an important virulence determinant. Unencapsulated meningococci lacking capsule biosynthesis genes and containing the capsule null locus (cnl) are predominantly non-pathogenic. Rare cases of invasive meningococcal disease caused by cnl isolates belonging to sequence types (ST) and clonal complexes (cc) ST-845 (cc845),(More)
Data on neonatal group B streptococcal (GBS) invasive disease burden are needed to refine prevention policies. Differences in surveillance methods and investigating for cases can lead to varying disease burden estimates. We compared the findings of laboratory-based passive surveillance for GBS disease across South Africa, and for one of the provinces(More)
INTRODUCTION Streptococcus pneumoniae is the commonest cause of bacteremic pneumonia among HIV-infected persons. As more countries with high HIV prevalence are implementing infant pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) programs, we aimed to describe the baseline clinical characteristics of adult invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in the pre-PCV era in South(More)
BACKGROUND We aimed to establish the prevalence of amphotericin B deoxycholate (AmBd)-related toxicities among South African patients with cryptococcosis and determine adherence to international recommendations to prevent, monitor and manage AmBd-related toxicities. METHODS Clinical data were collected from cases of laboratory-confirmed cryptococcosis at(More)
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