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Epithelial and stromal cells prepared from endometrium taken at different times in the menstrual cycle were grown in primary culture and the production of placental protein 14 (PP14) and interleukin-6 (IL6) measured. Only the epithelial cells produced PP14. Epithelial cells from endometrium in the late secretory phase produced significantly greater amounts(More)
The concentration of leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) was measured in uterine flushings obtained from normal fertile women, from women with unexplained infertility and from women who suffered recurrent miscarriage. In normal fertile women, LIF was not detected in flushings obtained on days luteinizing hormone (LH)+0 to LH+6 of the cycle, but concentrations(More)
Obstetric and neonatal outcomes of women who had a history of recurrent miscarriage were compared with a control population from 1 January 1992 to 30 June 1998. Amongst a total of 162 pregnancies which progressed beyond 24 weeks gestation in women with a history of recurrent miscarriage, there were four perinatal deaths and 16 babies were admitted to the(More)
Interleukin-11 is a member of the IL-6 family of cytokines. Its presence in mouse decidua has been shown and experiments in genetically modified mice have suggested the importance of its receptor in stromal cell decidualization. In this study we used immunocytochemistry to determine expression of IL-11 in human endometrium. The effects of TNFalpha,(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare plasma androgen concentrations in women who have recurrent miscarriages and in fertile women, and to correlate the results with concentrations of the endometrial protein PP14 in uterine flushings and plasma from women who have recurrent miscarriages. DESIGN Retrospective study. SETTING Hospital research unit. PATIENT(S) Women(More)
Recurrent pregnancy loss may be a consequence of an abnormal embryonic karyotype, or maternal factors affecting the endometrium resulting in defective implantation. In order to study the endometrial factors responsible for recurrent pregnancy loss, endometrial biopsy samples should be precisely timed according to the LH surge, and the investigation should(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe the pattern of pregnancy loss in women with a history of recurrent miscarriage (RM). DESIGN Retrospective, observational study. SETTING A tertiary referral center for RM. PATIENT(S) Five hundred thirty-eight subjects with RM. INTERVENTION(S) Women with antiphospholipid syndrome were treated with clexane and aspirin; some(More)
One potential cause of reproductive failure such as infertility and recurrent miscarriage may be an endometrial defect. Numerous studies in mice have suggested the importance of various different cytokines in successful pregnancy outcome. This article reviews the literature available on the role of T helper cytokines and IL-1, IL-11, LIF, IL-12 and IL-18 in(More)
The effect of interleukin 1 (IL1) and placental protein 14 (PP14) on the production of interleukin 6 (IL6) by cultured human endometrial epithelial cells prepared from endometrial biopsy material obtained at different stages in the menstrual cycle was investigated. Basal IL6 production by cells prepared from proliferative endometrium was greater than that(More)