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Sonic hedgehog (Shh), which regulates proliferation in many contexts, functions as a limb morphogen to specify a distinct pattern of digits. How Shh's effects on cell number relate to its role in specifying digit identity is unclear. Deleting the mouse Shh gene at different times using a conditional Cre line, we find that Shh functions to control limb(More)
Limb development endures as an excellent model for pattern formation in vertebrates. We have identified Gnot1 as a member of a new homeobox gene subfamily. Gnot1 is expressed in a dynamic temporospatial distribution in the developing limb, initially correlating with regions destined to form distal structures and then becoming progressively more restricted(More)
Several 5' members of the Hoxd cluster are expressed in nested posterior-distal domains of the limb bud suggesting a role in regulating anteroposterior pattern of skeletal elements. While loss-of-function mutants have demonstrated a regulatory role for these genes in the developing limb, extensive functional overlaps between various different Hox genes has(More)
Development of the posterior body (lumbosacral region and tail) in vertebrates is delayed relative to gastrulation. In amniotes, it proceeds with the replacement of the regressed node and primitive streak by a caudal blastema-like mass of mesenchyme known as the tail bud. Despite apparent morphological dissimilarities, recent results suggest that tail(More)
Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling regulates both digit number and identity, but how different distinct digit types (identities) are specified remains unclear. Shh regulates digit formation largely by preventing cleavage of the Gli3 transcription factor to a repressor form that shuts off expression of Shh target genes. The functionally redundant 5'Hoxd genes(More)
Chondrocyte hypertrophy is an essential process required for endochondral bone formation. Proper regulation of chondrocyte hypertrophy is also required in postnatal cartilage homeostasis. Indian hedgehog (Ihh) and PTHrP signaling play crucial roles in regulating the onset of chondrocyte hypertrophy by forming a negative feedback loop, in which Ihh signaling(More)
We report a system for investigating promoters of eucaryotic cell and virus genes based on analyses of the regulation of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) thymidine kinases whose structural gene sequences have been fused to the promoter of the gene under study. In infected cells, the polypeptides specified by HSV-1 form at least three groups, alpha, beta and(More)
Recent discoveries of spectacular dinosaur fossils overwhelmingly support the hypothesis that birds are descended from maniraptoran theropod dinosaurs, and furthermore, demonstrate that distinctive bird characteristics such as feathers, flight, endothermic physiology, unique strategies for reproduction and growth, and a novel pulmonary system originated(More)