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We have isolated a new murine homeobox gene, Rpx (for Rathke's pouch homeobox), that is dynamically expressed in the prospective cephalic region of the embryo during gastrulation. Early expression is seen in the anterior midline endoderm and prechordal plate precursor. Expression is subsequently activated in the overlying ectoderm of the cephalic neural(More)
The mouse Brachyury (T) gene plays critical roles in the genesis of normal mesoderm during gastrulation and in the maintenance of a functioning notochord. Abrogation of Brachyury (T) expression within the chordamesoderm of homozygous null mutants nevertheless spares anterior axis formation. An intriguing possibility to explain the preservation of anterior(More)
During endochondral bone development, the first osteoblasts differentiate in the perichondrium surrounding avascular cartilaginous rudiments; the source of trabecular osteoblasts inside the later bone is, however, unknown. Here, we generated tamoxifen-inducible transgenic mice bred to Rosa26R-LacZ reporter mice to follow the fates of stage-selective subsets(More)
Cartilage differentiation occurs over a broad time range from early embryonic development, when the mesenchymal condensations that give rise to cartilage models for future bone first appear, and continuing through adult life, when there is ongoing maintenance of articular joint surfaces and re-activation of cartilage formation after fracture. The(More)
The polarization of nascent embryonic fields and the endowment of cells with organizer properties are key to initiation of vertebrate organogenesis. One such event is antero-posterior (AP) polarization of early limb buds and activation of morphogenetic Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) signaling in the posterior mesenchyme, which in turn promotes outgrowth and specifies(More)
Despite a wealth of experimental data implicating fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling in various developmental processes, genetic inactivation of individual genes encoding specific FGFs or their receptors (FGFRs) has generally failed to demonstrate their role in vertebrate organogenesis due to early embryonic lethality or functional redundancy. Here we(More)
Sonic hedgehog (Shh), which regulates proliferation in many contexts, functions as a limb morphogen to specify a distinct pattern of digits. How Shh's effects on cell number relate to its role in specifying digit identity is unclear. Deleting the mouse Shh gene at different times using a conditional Cre line, we find that Shh functions to control limb(More)
Indian hedgehog (Ihh) is essential for chondrocyte and osteoblast proliferation/differentiation during prenatal endochondral bone formation. The early lethality of various Ihh-ablated mutant mice, however, prevented further analysis of its role in postnatal bone growth and development. In this study, we describe the generation and characterization of a(More)
Several 5' members of the Hoxd cluster are expressed in nested posterior-distal domains of the limb bud suggesting a role in regulating anteroposterior pattern of skeletal elements. While loss-of-function mutants have demonstrated a regulatory role for these genes in the developing limb, extensive functional overlaps between various different Hox genes has(More)
Anterior-posterior (AP) limb patterning is directed by sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling from the posteriorly located zone of polarizing activity (ZPA). GLI3 and GLI2 are the transcriptional mediators generally utilized in SHH signaling, and each can function as an activator (A) and repressor (R). Although GLI3R has been suggested to be the primary effector of(More)