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Chloroquine resistance has been linked to mutations in the pfcrt and pfmdr1 genes of Plasmodium falciparum. To estimate the prevalence of the pfcrt K76T, pfmdr1 N86Y, and pfmdr1 D1246Y polymorphisms, isolates of P. falciparum from Senegal, West Africa, were analyzed, and the results were compared to in vitro chloroquine susceptibility. By the in vitro DELI… (More)
Although the mechanisms by which malaria parasites develop resistance to drugs are unclear, current knowledge suggests a main mechanism of resistance is the alteration of target enzymes by point mutation. In other organisms, defects in DNA mismatch repair have been linked to increased mutation rates and drug resistance. We have identified an unusual… (More)
This is the second of two articles on smoking cessation. It provides advice on helping a patient to choose an appropriate nicotine replacement therapy product.
This article focuses on the national recommendations for brief interventions in smoking cessation advice and discusses how these guidelines can be incorporated into successful local initiatives.